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Post Info TOPIC: St.Thomas and Pattanam Church man makes newer frauds


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St.Thomas and Pattanam Church man makes newer frauds
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  http://www.deccanherald.com/content/213272/kerala-artists-oppose-international-festival.html

Binale Festival  Aimed to Internationally  Market Pattanam Archaeology Meet Strong Resistance

Kerala artists oppose international festival

Thiruvananthapuram, Dec 20, DHNS

Around 25 leading artists from the state, including Kanai Kunhuraman and C L Porinjukkutty, alleged at a press conference here on Tuesday that  norms are being violated to facilitate the event. No Kerala-based artist will be participating in the event, they said. The Rs 75-crore government aid promised for the event organised by a private trust violates all norms. The dissidents demanded a government probe into the issue.

The festival, initiated jointly by the Kochi-Muziris Biennale Foundation and Muziris Heritage Foundation, with government aid, will be held at different venues in Kochi and Muziris, around 25 km from Kochi.

The festival, with Mumbai-based artist Bose Krishnamachari as the director, would witness presentation of artworks, seminars, educational programmes and launch of several books.
Voicing their opposition, the artists said the Kerala Lalitha Kala Academy should have been 
entrusted with the responsibility of organising the festival.

Highlighting that the previous LDF government had already disbursed Rs 5 crore for the event, the artists urged the present state government to refrain from releasing further funds. Incidentally, the present UDF government had promised to release Rs 5 crore more.
The festival will be the biggest arts scam in the country, they said.



-- Edited by devapriya solomon on Tuesday 17th of January 2012 04:21:59 PM

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THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: A group of leading artists in the state who gathered here to protest against the suspicious way in the conduct of Kochi- Muziris- Biennale, have called for a Vigilance probe into the granting of crores of rupees to a Trust in the name of promotion of art.

 

 The group comprising nationally-acclaimed artists including C L Porinjukutty, Kanayi Kunhiraman, K K Rajappan, K C Chithrabhanu, N N Rimson, Tensing Joseph, Shibu Lopez, Nemom Pushparaj, T V Chandran, Gopikrishnan and Ajith Kumar G told a news conference the other day that the international art festival, which is the first of its kind being hosted in Kochi, has already come under scathing attack from the art fraternity for various reasons like not including the local artists and portraying the traditional art form of Kathakali in a vulgar manner in its brochure.

 

 The artists demanded that the State Government revoke the previous LDF Government’s  decision to grant an exorbitant sum of over Rs 70 crore without following any norms to the  Biennale organisers, Kochi Biennale Foundation, a public  charitable  Trust governed by the  provisions of Indian Trust Act(Act II of 1882) led by its president Bose Krishnamaachary and secretary Riyas Komu.

 

 The previous LDF government had sanctioned a sum of `73.2 crore for the conduct of Biennale from the Kochi Muziris project fund. The Department of Tourism had sanctioned the release of `5 crore to the Kochi Biennale Foundation to meet the initial cost.

 

They said this sum was unacceptably high as similar events like the Triennale of Central Lalitha Kala Akademi and International Film Festival of Kerala of State Chalachitra Academy were conducted with a budget of around Rs 3 crore.

 

 Moreover, the organising of the event had been undertaken by a Mumbai-based private agency, which was not accountable to the State Government in any way.

 

The State Lalitha Kala Akademy had been kept at a distance from the conduct of the international event. Hence, there was a possibility of the grant being misused. Since the government had granted the sum as a monetary aid, the organisers did not have to submit the accounts of the transactions before the government, they alleged.

 

 In addition, the previous government had granted several crores of rupees to the Kochi Muziris Foundation Trust for various proposals like installation of statues on roadsides from Nedumbassery airport to Ernakulam and establishment of Kochi Biennale schools without consulting the experts, the artists alleged.

 

 It has been pointed out that while Rs 5 crore was allotted as initial cost of the activities including that of the renovation of the Kochi Durbar Hall gallery, the Trust had claimed that they had spent Rs 3.5 crore for renovation itself. The artists claimed that the expense must have been cost only Rs 1.5 crore.

 

The artists wanted the State Government to conduct a Vigilance probe against all concerned including former Cultural Affairs Minister M A Baby as he had visited Venice Binennale along with Trust office-bearers, while he kept the Kochi-Biennale venture as a secret from the artists and art historians of the state.



-- Edited by devapriya solomon on Tuesday 17th of January 2012 03:49:42 PM

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Report sought on Muziris Biennale Funding

http://expressbuzz.com/biography/report-sought-on-muziris-biennale-funding/345477.html

Last Updated : 21 Dec 2011 11:39:22 AM IST


KOCHI: The Kerala Government has sought a report on the funding for the Kochi Muziris Biennale and also about the activities of the Kochi Biennale Foundation, the private trust that has been formed for conducting the biennial.

 

“The Culture Secretary has been asked to submit a report at the earliest regarding the funds that have been transferred to the Kochi Biennale Foundation and about its activities,” Cultural Affairs Minister K C Joseph told Express.

 

“The Secretary has been asked to look into the various media reports that had come out against the functioning of the Kochi Muziris Biennial,” he said and added that he had got numerous complaints from artists regarding it. The artists had also given a memorandum against the Kochi Biennale Foundation, Joseph said.

 

Stating that it was the previous government that had allotted `5 crore for the Kochi Muziris Biennale, Joseph said everything would be looked into. A decision would be taken after getting the report from the Secretary, he added.

 

The government was forced to ask the Culture Secretary to furnish a report after the artistic community raised doubts about the functioning of the biennale.

 

 Renowned artist and former executive member of Kerala Lalit Kala Akademi B D Dattan said that the entire artistic community was against the way the government had given the power to the  Kochi Biennale Foundation for conducting the biennale.

 

“There is no accounting for the `5 crore that had been already given to the foundation, which has Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu at the top of the trust. How can the government allot such a huge amount of money to a private trust,” he asked.  The foundation is engaged in all sorts of extravaganza and is wasting the tax payers money, he said and added the government should not have sanctioned such a huge amount.

 

Lashing out at the Foundation’s claim that the artists in the state would have a bigger space after the renovation of the Durbar Hall, Dattan said the hall had always been a pride of the artists in the state.  



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Intellectuals  Condemn Benale Festival and Pattanam
 
 
 
 

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: Bharatheeya Vichara Kendram director P Parameswaran has questioned the logic behind linking the Muziris project with the Indian edition of a foreign festival, Biennale, and criticised the vulgar portrayal of Kerala’s classical art form of Kathakali in the festival brochure.

Express, in its Kochi edition, carried a report the other day on the� controversy over the vulgar portrayal of Kathakali in the brochure which� carries the picture of a painting in which a Kathakali artiste’s embellished head is shown fixed on the body of a muscleman wearing only a loin cloth and carrying a mace in his hand.
Noted artistes such as Kalamandalam Gopi had expressed anguish and protest over the vulgar portrayal in the brochure for the Indian edition of an Italian festival, which is slated to showcase India’s rich cultural and social heritage, which will be taken around the world.
The festival, the brainchild of former minister M A Baby, is expected to attract funding amounting to Rs 100 crore of which a major portion is from the Centre and State Governments.
Responding to the news report, Parameswaran said that the shift in the interest of the stakeholders from archeological excavation to heritage� project and now to conducting a foreign festival to promote tourism was a dubious one.
“To start on an academic note, end up in heritage and tourism projects and link it with Biennale festival, the entire issue is surrounded by a kind of mystery. What I don’t understand is how does Pattanam excavation connected to Biennale, an Italian festival,’’ he said.
A foreign festival, which is in no way connected to the excavation, should not be supported by the government. Now, the brochure reveals what they are aimed at. In the name of culture, in fact, they are denigrating the culture, Parameswaran said.


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The International Conspiracy for Establishing Pattanam as St' Thomas site

 

 median.hypotheses.org

Accession date and time 06-12-2011

 Roberta Tomber Stated  that St' Thomas Landed at Pattanam.

Shinu Abraham is consultant -Knanaya Nazrene Christian Academy  at Pattanam

K.P.Shajan and V.Selvakumar Presented Papers on Pattanam for Syro-Malabar Church, Kochi

The International Conspiracy for  Establishing Pattanam as St' Thomas Site

 

 Migration, Trade and Peoples


Publication en ligne de la Royal Asiatic Society : 
Willis M. (ed.), Migration, Trade and Peoples : European Association of South Asian Archaeologists. Proceedings of the eighteenth congress, London, 2005, London : The Br itish Association for South Asian Studies, The British Academy, 2009.
Sommaire
Foreword / Michael Willis. iii
PART 1: INDIAN OCEAN COMMERCE AND THE ARCHAELOGY OF WESTERN INDIA. 1
Editors: Roberta Tomber, Lucy Blue, Shinu Abraham
Preface. 2
- Boats, Routes and Sailing Conditions of Indo-Roman Trade / Lucy Blue. 3
- Strategies for Surface Documentation at the Early Historic site of Pattanam, Kerala: the Malabar Region Archaelogical Survey / Shinu A. Abraham. 14
- Archaeological investigations at Pattanam, Kerala: New Evidence for the Location of Ancient Muziris / V. Selvakumar, K.P. Shajan and Roberta Tomber. 29
- Beyond Western India: the Evidence from Imported Amphorae / Roberta Tomber. 4


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MONDAY, 7 NOVEMBER 2011

P.J.Cherian Dupes Press and Southern Naval Command.

 
 To Press P.J.Cherian States He Discovered the Oldest Pier in the World. To Southern Naval Command He is Silent on Pier and Wharf and States on  the Canoe at Pattanam. 




 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-268270437.html
  Accession Date and Time 08-11-2011; 8.15 AM 
KOCHI, Sept. 29 -- The National Maritime Foundation (NMF) has honoured the Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR) with its excellence award. 
KCHR Director P J Cherian received the award, consisting of a plaque and citation, from Vice-Admiral K N Sushil, flag officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Southern Naval Command, at a function organised at the Naval Base.P J Cherian said that Pattanam excavations have unearthed the oldest ever pier in the world. He sought the assistance of all in taking the Muziris Project forward and acknowledged the contributions of the Southern Naval Command in the underwater mapping of the area. 





 http://indiannavy.nic.in/PRel_110928_MuzirisProjectAward.pdf
 Accession Date and Time 08-11-2011; 8.15 AM 
National Maritime Foundation (NMF) has awarded the Excellence Award to
the Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR). The award consisting of a plaque
and citation was accepted by Dr PJ Cherian, Director of KCHR from Vice Admiral KN
Sushil, Flag Officer Commanding in Chief Southern Naval Command at an
impressive ceremony at the Southern Naval Command Officers Mess late evening
yesterday.Dr PJ Cherian in his acceptance speech informed the audience that the
Pattanam canoe could be one of the oldest found in an archaeological context in
South Asia.


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With Piracy Photos P.J.Cherian Argues Pattanam is Ancient Muziris

 

 http://www.basas.org.uk/groups/ports.htm

Accession Date and Time 08-11-2011; 8.00AM

RESEARCH GROUPS

PORTS AND INDIAN OCEAN EXCHANGES

Convenors: Dr R Tomber (British Museum, London, UK) & Prof PJ Cherian (Kerala Council for Historical Research, Trivandrum, India)
This international research group concentrates on Indian Ocean exchange of the Early Historic and Medieval periods, particularly seen through its ports, and the goods and ideas exchanged between them.
The convergence of textual and archaeological evidence during the Early Historic makes it and subsequent periods especially amenable to the study of exchange. Active archaeological research throughout the rim of the Indian Ocean is providing new finds and stimulating a growing interest in the subject. Informed speculation on the global nature of the economies of these periods can only now be attempted on the strength of this new information regarding the connections, exchanges and interaction among the different ethnic groups, trade sites and partners from different social and political systems. 
indian-ocean-map-modern-names.jpg 
Figure 1: Main ports of the Early Historic period (A. Simpson)
The group will use port sites as a springboard for investigating broader issues, initially concentrating on the site at Pattanam. A newly discovered, multi-period site excavated by the Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR), Pattanam has revealed diverse finds associated with Indian Ocean exchange including imports from Rome, West Asia and China. These finds, together with its urban character, argue for its equation with the famed ancient site of Muchiri or Muziris to the Romans. 
pattanam-canoe.jpg 
Figure 2: Canoe excavated at Pattanam during the 2007 excavations (Photo KCHR)
The purpose of the research group is to provide a forum for international collaborators, to direct future research at Pattanam (including conservation) and, broadening out from this, establish research agendas and programmes throughout the Indian Ocean. The members comprise land and maritime archaeologists, anthropologists, historians and epigraphers, who have broad expertise throughout the region and have published extensively.

Group members

  • Dr Shinu Abraham (St Lawrence University, USA)
  • Dr Lucy Blue (Southampton University, UK)
  • Prof Robin Coningham (Durham University, UK)
  • Dr Federico De Romanis (Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Italy)
  • Dr Derek Kennet (Durham University, UK)
  • Dr Raghava Varier (Arya Vaidyasala Kottackal, Kerala, India)
  • Dr K Rajan (Pondicherry University, India)
  • Dr Steven Sidebotham (Delaware University, USA)
  • Dr V Selvakumar (Tamil University, Tanjore, India)
  • Dr Heidrun Schenk ((Tissamaharama-Projek des Deutschen Archäologischen Institut, Bonn, Germany)
  • Dr KP Shajan (UK)
  • Dr Y Subrayalu (Institut Français de Pondichéry, India)
  • Dr Kesavan Veluthat (Mangalore University)


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SUNDAY, 13 NOVEMBER 2011

Pattanam and P.J.Cherian: Prof. MGS Narayanan Launches Scathing Attack on Pattanam Ideology

 
Professor MGS Narayanan Former Chairman of ICHR and currently Director General of Centre For Heritage Studies, Thrippunithura, Kerala launched a scathing attack on Pattanam archaeological excavations and KCHR. He was delivering the Presidential address of the National Conference of three archaeological socities- The  Indian Archaeological Society,  Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and Indian History and Culture Society  on 11th November 2011 at Mar Gregorious Renewal Centre, Nalanchira Thiruvananthapuram.. Professor MGS Narayanan urged the Archaeological Survey of India to take up Pattanam excavations.The entire archaeological community from all over India numbering 200 and represented by the three socities applauded the suggestions put forward by MGS. Narayanan.Dr. K.N.Dik****, fSecretary of Indian Archaeological Society and former Deputy Director General of Archaeological Survey of India,  Dr. B.R.Mani, currently Additional Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, Professor P.K.Thomas and Professor Pramod Joglekar of  Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and Professor Vandana Kaushik and Professor Ashalatha Joshi of Indian History and Culture Society were present on the occasion.


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WEDNESDAY, 16 NOVEMBER 2011

P.J.Cherian and Pattanam -The Integrity of excavations questioned by Indian Archaeologists at three day national conference at Thiruvananthapuram

 
At  Thiruvananthapuram , on 11th November 2011 Prof MGS Narayanan in his presidential address at the annual conference of the Indian Archaeological Society, Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and Indian History and Culture Society  launched a scathing attack on Pattanam excavations and requested the Archaeological Survey of India to undertake the site.On 12th November 2011 eminent archaeologists questioned the integrity of Pattanam excavations. After P.J.Cherian presented his paper on Pattanam at the Indian Archaeological Society Session it was severely criticized. Prof A.Sundara leading archaeologist from Karnataka pointed out that there are no major structural remains at the site. He  asked P.J.Cherian  to precisely record and  classify antiquities from each trench  rather than pooling them together and interpreting them. Prof. Sundara told Cherian that such approaches are not adopted in field archaeology since  cultural material from each trench has its validity. Prof .Sundara also pointed out that the claims of structural remains from Pattanam is questionable. Dr. K.N.Dik**** former Joint Director General of Archaeological Survey of India and Secretary of Indian Archaeological Society questioned the claims of P.J.Cherian that Historical Period at Pattanam goes around 1000 BC. K.N. Dik**** asked Cherian to  be cautious and  review such claims since Historical Period in Peninsular India has not gone beyond 200-300BC 

Other archaeologists questioned Cherians claims of Pattanam as an urban site since nothing was seen in empty  trenches  when they visited Pattanam . To them Cherian told that he  has left the site and structures in the trenches were carried away by local people for which he is not responsible.When he was again asked to clear as to how residential areas, streets , warehouses and wharfs  can be carried away by people Cherian was silent and stood isolated.


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National Archaeological Meet-Prof MGS Asks KCHR to Hand Over Pattanam to ASI---P.J.Cherian Vehemently Criticized by Leading Archaeologists

 



http://expressbuzz.com/cities/thiruvananthapuram/kchr-asked-to-hand-over-pattanam-excavation/333792.html


 
Last Updated : 16 Nov 2011 12:57:31 PM IST
 

 


THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: M G S Narayanan, noted historian and Director General of the Centre for  Heritage Studies has called  upon the Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR) to hand over the excavation activity, being carried out at Pattanam, to the Archeological Survey of India (ASI).Presiding over the annual meet of the Archeologists held here the other day, he said that the KCHR had not been able to make considerable progress in the excavation so far. He said that the ASI, which is the representative body of the Archeologists in the country, had only the expertise to take up such a mammoth task and conduct it in a scientific manner.He expressed his displeasure over the KCHR’s decision to black out the media about the ‘meet’ fearing criticism from the archeologists across the country. The  organisers in the State had neither invited the media nor given the details to it. When KCHR chairman P J Cherian presented the paper on Pattanam excavation, it invited severe criticism from eminent archeologists.The ASI, Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and the Indian History and cultural Society jointly organised the meet. ASI Additional Director General Dr B R Mony, former deputy additional director  general Dr K N Deek****h and Additional Chief Secretary K Jayakumar were present.  Noted archeologist A Sundaraiah was honoured at the function.


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MONDAY, 5 DECEMBER 2011

The International Conspiracy for Establishing Pattanam as St' Thomas site

 

 median.hypotheses.org

Accession date and time 06-12-2011

 Roberta Tomber Stated  that St' Thomas Landed at Pattanam.

Shinu Abraham is consultant -Knanaya Nazrene Christian Academy  at Pattanam

K.P.Shajan and V.Selvakumar Presented Papers on Pattanam for Syro-Malabar Church, Kochi

The International Conspiracy for  Establishing Pattanam as St' Thomas Site

 

 Migration, Trade and Peoples


Publication en ligne de la Royal Asiatic Society : 
Willis M. (ed.), Migration, Trade and Peoples : European Association of South Asian Archaeologists. Proceedings of the eighteenth congress, London, 2005, London : The Br itish Association for South Asian Studies, The British Academy, 2009.
Sommaire
Foreword / Michael Willis. iii
PART 1: INDIAN OCEAN COMMERCE AND THE ARCHAELOGY OF WESTERN INDIA. 1
Editors: Roberta Tomber, Lucy Blue, Shinu Abraham
Preface. 2
- Boats, Routes and Sailing Conditions of Indo-Roman Trade / Lucy Blue. 3
- Strategies for Surface Documentation at the Early Historic site of Pattanam, Kerala: the Malabar Region Archaelogical Survey / Shinu A. Abraham. 14
- Archaeological investigations at Pattanam, Kerala: New Evidence for the Location of Ancient Muziris / V. Selvakumar, K.P. Shajan and Roberta Tomber. 29
- Beyond Western India: the Evidence from Imported Amphorae / Roberta Tomber. 4


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Attempt to  Transform Adulterated Archaeology at Pattanam into Tourism and Heritage Site of St' Thomas

Archaeologists Respond- 
Report by  Times of India

Muziris does not need a tourism tag'
Dec 11, 2011, 02.24AM IST [ Gayathri Sasibhushan ]


KOCHI: The focus of the Muziris project is shifting towards tourism
from the archaeological importance of the findings of the excavation
done at a site, according to archaeology experts. On the sidelines of
an international seminar at Kottappuram on Saturday, many experts said
that the project should be given its due archaeological importance.

The excavation at the Muziris heritage site should have been modelled
after the Anuradhapura excavation project in Sri Lanka, K Krishnan, a
faculty member of archaeology at the University of Baroda, said. The
department of archaeology was part of the of the excavation team at
Anuradhapura, which was at present a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Krishnan said that the importance of Muziris was shifting towards
tourism from the archaeological importance of the findings.

A scholar in the field of geological-archaeology, Krishnan suggested a
comprehensive study technique such as the Hinterland transect survey
for further Kottapuram excavations. "In simple language, this would
mean a more intensive field work with Arcgis software-enabled
equipment, which is an expensive and labour-intensive alternative to
what is being done now," he said.

The shards of pottery and celadon found at the Kottappuram fort were
signs of a much earlier settlement of Portuguese than 1509, said Prof
Doutor Vitor Rodriguez. Doutor, an expert on the Portuguese forts in
south India, said, "Kottappuram will have more relics because the
strategic position of the fort in relation to the ancient Spice route
and further excavations will definitely give us more evidence."



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TUESDAY, 1 NOVEMBER 2011

Pattanam-P.J.Cherian Dupes Current Science Journal and International Archaeological Community

 
http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul252009/236.pdf
 Accession Date and Time 02-11-2011;10.45

 Pictures From Article By P.J.Cherian in Current Science  Vol.97; No 2 2009-July Titled 
Chronology of Pattanam-A Multi Cultural Port Site on the Malabar Coast




wharf-pattanam.jpg

wharf-2-pattanam.jpg

 Shocking Reality-
                                     Empty  Trenches  at Pattanam  (2011)                                              
Where is the  Residential Complex  Claimed by Cherian?
1.jpg
                                           Where is the Warehouse Claimed by Cherian ?
3.jpg

                                         Where is the Wharf  and Pier Excavated by Cherian?



2.jpg

  The Demolished Remains of the so called  Wharf Structure Deposited Near the Trenches


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Picture of P.J.Cherian and Biblical Scholar Discussing Pattanam

 
 
PJ-Robert+Eisenman.jpg
P.J.Cherian with Biblical Scholar on Dead Sea Scrolls Robert Eisenman Discussing On Pattanam


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Pictures of Knanaya Christian Scholar at Seminar on Pattanam

 
sandip-sidebotham.jpg
 Knanaya Christian Scholar Sandeep Abraham   Discussing on Pattanam with Dr  S. Sidebothemat Seminar  on Pattanam 
Sandeep-Cherian.jpg
Knanaya  Christian Scholar Sundeep Abraham Being Briefed on Pattanam by P.J.Cherian


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Picture of P.J.Cherian's Archaeological Team at International Seminar on Pattanam

 
International.jpg


From Left -P.J.Cherian, S.Sharma CPM  MLA, Dr. Thomas Issac CPM minister, P.Govinda Pillai, CPM  Idealogue, M.A.Baby CPM minister and Kodiyeri Balakrishnan CPM minister


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MONDAY, 31 OCTOBER 2011

Pictures of Knanaya Nazarene Museum Chairman with Pattanam Excavation Team

 
knanayapattanam.jpg
Jose Dominic , Chairman of Proposed  Knanaya Nazarene Academy Museum of Knanaya Church along with 
K.P.Shajan,  and Selvakumar at Pattanam


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Pattanam Becomes Contentious Issue

 
  • October 31, 2011
  • By Vinod Nedumudy
  • DC
  • Kochi
 
The historical excavation project at Pattanam and Kodungalloor and the state tourism department's role in it, is proving to be a fiercely contentious issue. 
Called the Muziris Heritage Tourism Project, the bone of contention is the very name of the project. Not only is it not clear that present day Pattanam is in fact the 3000-year-old port of Muziris, but turning it into a tourism project has raised the hackles of many historians who believe historical excavations and tourism should not be mixed.
Excavation at the two sites has been going on for the past five years. Remnants of amphora and other pottery pieces dating to the Roman, Parthian and Sassanian dynasties as well as some human skeletons have been recovered. Forty lakh artifacts, a majority of them belonging to the 15th century, have also been recovered.
The excavation is being handled by the Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR), a government body, and some historians say that KCHR does not have the expertise to handle such an important project and it should be handed over to the Archaeological Survey of India.
The Muziris Heritage Tourism Project website goes one step further and establishes that “present Kodungallur had been named Mahodayapuram, Makothevarpattanam Muyirikkodu and Muziris by the Greeks and Romans, Shingly by the Jews, Cranganore by the Portuguese.“
“The present day Kodungallur, situated 30 km north of Cochin and believed to be Muziris of the past, is said to have been first occupied around 1,000 BC and continued to be active till the 13th century AD.” 
The website further says: “The prosperous port of Muziris (Muziris Heritage Tour), at the mouth of the Periyar, overlooking the Arabian Sea was engulfed and silted over by the flooding of the river (in 1341), leaving its actual site to conjecture. The excavations (Muziris Heritage Excavations) by the Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR) in 2007 and 2008 unearthed the archaeological and historical evidence which confirmed its location.”
Prominent historian M.G.S. Narayan, questioning the premise that Pattanam is Muziris, says that the KCHR is making tall claims. “There are no archaeologists in the current team except Dr Selva Kumar of Tanjavur Tamil University. There is a hurry to establish that Pattanam is Muziris which is not correct. I suspect there was a politically corrupt design involving the previous LDF government behind the project,” he said.
He, however, added that so far the project has not done any damage, but the Archaeological Survey of India is the competent body to guide the project. 
“In the first place Dr Cheriyan, who is the director of KCHR and who is controlling the present excavation, is not an archaeologist. Moreover, at this stage tourism should not be brought into the picture,” he said.
“There is an attempt to establish that Muziris was a Roman colony and had interactions with different nations at different times and hence what evolved was multi-culturalism. They are trying to showcase it as a tourism object. They mean to say that Kodungallur didn’t have a culture of its own,” says K. Satheesh Chandran, co-ordinator of Socio-Cultural and Development Studies, an NGO based in Kochi.
Unmindful of such criticism, the State Government is going ahead with the Muziris project and plans to inaugurate the first phase next April. 
Tourism Minister A.P. Anilkumar said that the State Government proposes to showcase this unique project before the ambassadors of various nations in New Delhi in the immediate future.
Prof K.N. Panikkar, chairman of KCHR, said that the tourism component has been included in the project to raise money for it. 
He also said that KCHR has not come to any conclusion that Pattanam is Muziris. He said that he stands by his comments two years ago that he was not happy about naming the project the Muziris Heritage Tourism Project. 
He said he had expressed his concern that tourism should not be merged with historical heritage. Panicker had said then that “tourism as a possible source of revenue can be disastrous for the culture of a place.”
Director of the project and of KCHR, Prof P.J. Cherian, says there is an attempt to target him saying that he was not an archaeologist. 
“I don't know what kind of expertise they mean. Very scientific work is going on at Pattanam. Such work has not been undertaken since 1946. This could be a knowledge-based tourism project,” he said.
Controversies apart, how to raise funds for an archaeological project is a key problem but showcasing it as a tourism landmark even before the artifacts are arranged, raises several questions. 


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SUNDAY, 30 OCTOBER 2011

Muziris is at Pattanam- Claim by St' George Forane Church

 
St. George Basilica 
  http://www.smcim.org/church/angamaly/article/47
Accession Date and Time-31-10-2011; 11.20AM
    
Christianity of Angamaly

St. Thomas Tradition –a brief
What we know about the history today, in general, is through that had already been recorded or written. A major part of the other side of the history still remains in the dark. The sleeping history can be explored to some extent and awakened through teamwork, by undertaking field studies, literature collections and analysis. In recent years a number of Christian historical books have been published. The major contents of all these works are almost new version of the old ones and the new inputs are very scanty. Lacks of proper field research, lapses shown in the protection of antique monuments, ignorance of foresight etc. have adversely influenced the quality of outcomes. Did St. Thomas really come to India? What are the authentic evidences available to establish the same? These questions are projected at all times and the solutions put forward are not fully satisfied with the many of scholars and researchers.
 
Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of the Republic of India, speaking on the occasion of the St. Thomas Day Celebrations at New Delhi on December 18, 1955, said, “Remember, St. Thomas came to India when many of the countries of Europe had not yet become Christian, and so those Indians who trace their Christianity to him have a longer history than many of the European Countries. And it is really a matter of pride that it so happened.”
 
According to the Malabar tradition, St. Thomas the Apostle, came by sea, and landed at Cranganore (Kodungalloor) in A.D. 52. He preached gospel; converted high caste Hindu families in various places of Malabar and erected a few public places of worship. Then he moved to Coromandel and suffered martyrdom on or near Little mount. His body was brought to the town of Mylapore and was buried in a holy shrine (Santhome church)
 
St. Thomas tradition might be considered to consist of elements of the traditions of Malabar, Mylapore or Coromandel and the Chaldean church. Some details of this combined tradition may be found in a few folk songs such as Rabban pattu, Veeradiyan pattu, Margam kali pattu etc, and some historical accounts both of which now exist in written records.
 
Nevertheless, the people of Malabar undoubtedly possessed a rich oral tradition, which reflected fully or partially in their folk songs and even in written annals. And all these various vehicles of tradition were available in the 16th century to the inquisitive Portuguese, who made ample use of these sources and wrote down their accounts in the form of letters, reports, depositions and well-composed histories.
 
Typical Traces 
Of course, we may put aside the testimonies of forefathers of church like St. Ephrem, Ambrose and Gregory etc. However, the first landmark in the realm of tradition, which has solidified itself during the last twenty centuries, is the belief preserved in the Malabar Jews. They affirm that when they landed in Malabar in 69 A.D. they found there a colony of Christians.
 
One of the source books for the life and mission of St. Thomas, the Apostle, is the work called “The Acts of St Thomas” which dates probably from early 3rd century. It is considered to be an apocryphal work, but serious scholars seem to favour the historical evidences mentioned in the work. According to the Acts, the Apostle St. Thomas preached gospel in the land of Gondaferes. This prince is the Parthian King Guduphara, who was ruler of Afghanistan and the Punjab during the second quarter of the first century A.D. The country called Parthia (B.C. 250-A.D.226) was included Northern and Western India and a large part of Indus valley (Major India). Till the middle of the 19th century even the existence of such a King was considered legendary or a myth. But, the most dramatic discovery in the field of numismatics in India effected a wonderful change in the realisation of this true whole story. In 1857, a large number of coins were discovered in Kabul, Kandahar and in the western and southern Punjab bearing the name of Gondophares. Some of these coins were now kept in the Lahore Museum.
 
The St. Thomas tradition is not a creation of fancy. On the other hand the co-existence of co-ordinate facts, points to the definite conclusion that the Apostle did come to Malabar to make the earliest beginning for the propagation of Christianity.
 
Origin of St Thomas Christians – A Topographical Outlook About AngamalyIn the church history, it is generally considered that the St Thomas Christian communities of Cragannore (Kodungalloor) and Palayoor were migrated to Angamaly during early periods of Christian era. Why these Christians selected Angamaly to migrate? Why Angamaly was chosen as the seat of Archbishop House for many ancient centuries? From the ancient period onwards, the highest density of population of St. Thomas Christians was seen at Angamaly, Why? Mar. Francis Ross recorded - the See of Angamaly was the most ancient See of India. - the See of Mylapore which was found by the Apostle Thomas himself, was transferred to Cragannore when the Christians left Mylapore and got themselves established in Cragannore, and the See of Angamaly was the continuation of the Cragannore See.” Why?
 
According to the traditional belief, the apostle St. Thomas visited India two times and preached gospel. He started his initial journey to India with the traders through the silk route touching Takshasila (the capital of the Parthian Kingdom) and second time through the spice route.
 
The land route, which was the common route followed by the traders engaged in oriental trade to fetch Chinese Porcelain and silk, and was able to reach North West India, ruled by the Parthian King Gondophoros. After his evangelization work in North India, St. Thomas is said to have returned to Jerusalem for attending the first Jerusalem council via Barygaza ( Braukaccha or Broach), which is mentioned as an important port-town in Gujarat by Periplus of Erythraen sea.
 
St. Thomas is believed to have come to South India after the Jerusalem council via Persian Gulf and Socotora.  Attempts to historicize the activities of St. Thomas in South India would necessitate a close at the international developments, against which the apostolic work is depicted in tradition. It was possible to reach Malabar (Kerala) coast from European countries within 42 days through spice route (sea route) with the advantage of monsoon winds. The discovery of the advantage of monsoon winds for navigation, in Northern Indian Ocean sector in A.D. 45 by Hippalus, increased the sea traffic between Roman Empire and Malabar. St. Thomas established seven churches (Communities) at Muzuris(Kodungalloor ), Palayoor, Paravoor (Kottakkavu), Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Kollam and Chayal (Nilakkal) in Malabar. Even though this belief may not be fully realistic, or otherwise if it is so, it can be pointed that there were other nearby places also, like Angamaly, Alangad, Mala, Malayattoor etc, which were enlightened by the Gospel with the visit of St. Thomas, which can be substantiated with the ancient topographical features and tracing the trade centers of that time. The possibility of Angamally as the origin of St Thomas Christians cannot be simply ignored. No doubt, it is a thrust area and needs a serious research studies in this subject.
 
Angamaly (position 10° 20¢N & 76° 37¢E) was well connected with the rivers and mountains; and it was the one of the main trade junction of spices (mainly pepper) with guardhouse, and path way to Spice route in Malabar. It is believed that St. Thomas traveled from Malabar to Thamizhakam through land route (Ghat route) crossing Western ghats. This route, starting from Muzuris to Madurai /Pandi, connects different places, mainly Angamaly, Manjapra, Malayattor, Kothamangalam, Adimali,Poopara, Bodimeetu, Bodynaikanoor and also via Admali, Munnar, Pollachi, Udmalpettu, etc. Kings, Traders and Missionaries of various religions used this route, for a long period in ancient centuries.
 
An account about this route, given in the Ernakulam District Gazetter is as follows: “According to tradition, St. Thomas came to Malayattor by the then familiar route, through some passages in the western ghats which linked Kerala with Pandien kingdom”. There is also a narration about the same fact in the famous Ramban pattu.
 
River valley-civilization 
It would be very interesting to know that the mountain route (path to spice route) was actually ended at Angamaly and the river originated from Western Ghats, flowing through Angamaly, was used for inland navigation, which was connected with the Arabian Sea. This wide and long river, later named as Periyar (In Tamil ‘periya are’ means large river), was partially diverted away from Angamaly during the great flood in 1341. This great flood resulted deposition of silt in the various locations of the river (This feature is very evident at the river strip of Naithode-Chethikode regions) and obstructed the river flow by reducing its volume. This river is known as Manjally River now.
 
The river (Manjally River) almost surrounding Angamaly had great influence in the development of a unique community culture and also a main trade center. Recent years, the topographical structure of this river has been considerably changed again and reformed as a small stream. The olden remarkable memories of non-mechanized sailing vessels means flag vessels (pathamari) for foreign trades, warehouses, guard house, boat jetties, markets (angadies) etc located near the banks of this river are placed today in the history of myth. This was the river, which played a major role in the formation and concentration of ideal location of St Thomas Syrian Christians at Angamaly, from the beginning of Christian era. It could be seen that the peculiar geographical features of Angamaly was the basis of the unique civilization in and around Angamaly during the ancient period. If we go through the Periyar valley civilization, a number of hidden facts can be revealed about Angamaly. From the adjacent regions of Angamaly, namely Kidagoor, Kodussery, Malluserry, Karippasserry etc, megalithic monuments were discovered during the last few decades. In the eastern side of the Angamally, it was unearthed (1986) urn burial jars containing remains of rusted iron tools. From Kodusserry, 783 Roman silver coins were unearthed in 1987. These coins were used in 1st century A.D. in various parts of India, which points that Angamally was well connected with the international and national trades.
 
An urn burial was discovered in January 2005 while digging for a foundation pit at Karippassery, a small hamlet near Vattaparambu village, lying about 5 km south east of Angamaly town in Ernakulam district. It was found in a plot owned by Mr. Sebi Kavalipadan. No mortuary goods were found in the urn but it was covered with pottery lid. A white sticky organic material, probably the disintegrated and decomposed bones was noticed in the bottom portion of the urn. The burial is datable to the Iron Age-Early Historic period. The site is situated at about 10 m MSL on a sloping laterite flat surrounded by river terraces, palate channels and flood plains of the Periyar and the Chalakudy rivers. A number of urn burials and few solenoid cists are reported in the nearby areas. A punch marked coin hoard and many megalithic burials were earlier found at Kodussery, about 1 km NE of the site (Journal of Centre for Heritage studies, Vol2, 2005)
 
The foreign traveler Cosmos, who visited in India (A.D. 522) in his Topographia Christiana, stated that, ‘Male was the center of pepper trade, where a Bishop was doing services among a strong Christian community’. Even though there are difference of opinion about the location of Male, it is believed that Male was located in the present place of Angamaly (Anga-Male).
 
It has come to the notice that most of the historical significances were brought to Kodungalloor by linking the names of historic places such as Cragannore, Mahadevarpattanam, Muzuris, Vanchi, etc. to Kodungalloor during the first few Christian centuries itself. This could not fully be justified; because, the recent archaeological findings at Pattanam (N. Paravoor) such as large scale collection of Italian amphora jars, roulette tiles, Mesopotamian torpedo jar, west Asian glazed potteries, beads and semi-precious red stones, bricks etc used between B.C. (1st century) and medieval periods, projected a high level academic dispute during 2004-07 and finally, experts in this field recognized that , the actual location of Muzuris was at Pattanamm and not at Kodungaloor.
 
Vanished Nazraney Heritage values 
The present Forane Church in the name of St George (West church) was located at the bank of river (Manjally River). There was a boat-jetty locally known as pallikadvu (Church boat-jetty) at northwest side of this church that was used till the end of the 19th century. In 2001, an investigation team identified the remains of laetrite stone steps (padavu). Earlier an extension of the river was directly connected with the boundary of the church plot and later due to the shortage of river water, the riverbed reformed as paddy field. At present, when rainwater floods during monsoon season in the paddy field, reflects the paddy field as river view, which recalls the ancient topographical similarity. Even though this location is not existent now, a clear and real proof is available in the Varthamanapusthakam.
 
In historical records, it is seen that there was a regional ruler, known as Mangattu Kaimal who resided near the church during the 16th century. An account seen in Jornada is as follows: “Before the Archbishop left Vaipicota the Caimal of Angamaly (Kaimal of Angamaly) came to visit him, whom they call the black king (Karutha tavazhi) of Angamaly because there is another whom they call the white (Velutha tavazhi), and both are reigning, because it is a custom among the Malabaris to have in many places two and three kings of a Kingdom with lands distinct from one another, but all give orders,..” The remains of edifices of the King are still seen in a private property near the church. The king had donated large areas of land to the church, by exempting land tax. The typical boundary stones (thoranakallu) in different locations are still remaining near the premises of the churches.
 
The documents relating to the lands indicate that a major part of the Angamaly area was assigned to the church in the early period. When the people from the other places migrated to Angamaly, they occupied the properties of church in different periods. Later, during the Revenue settlement done in the mid 19th century and the land rules established during the period 1945-54, the people having the land properties of the church on lease, became the owners of the same.
 
In the four volumes of Basic Tax Registers (1955-60), kept at village office, Angamaly the details of land properties of churches were available. The survey numbers in the first three volumes were numbered as from 1/1A to 154 C, 155/1cc to 283/7A and from 283/7B to 419/4B respectively. These BTRs of Kothakulangara South Village were prepared based on the division of villages, which took place on 1.10. 1956. Accordingly it is seen that the valia pallai (St. George catholic church) had owned 36.82 acres of land (thandper or tax number 758), comprising, a total number of 75 plots and the cheria pallai (St Marys Jacobite church) had owned 11.65 acres of land (thandper or tax number 762), comprising, a total number of 33 plots in Angamaly.
 
The cross is the symbol of Christianity in Kerala, especially when it is recalled that there were no images other than the cross in Kerala churches before the advent of the Portuguese. At Angamaly, three tall open air rock crosses installed in front of all the three churches are very ancient ( pre-Portuguese period) and attractive appearance. Out of which, the rock cross with hidden bells in the basement, situated in front of the St. Hormis Church (Eastern Church) was broken when a lorry hit on it in 1969. The experts failed to reinstate the cross in its original form.
 
Ancient churches had mammoth walls (elephant walls) fixing rock lamps which surrounds the churches. These walls are very strong and its peculiar shape meant to resist the attack of elephants and enemies. The attractive mammoth walls of St. George church were demolished in 2005 and constructed new one in place of old mamooth walls.
 
A huge rock baptismal font (St. George Forane Church), many centuries old, was found to be broken in many pieces and dumped near the priest’s kitchen due to the ignorance of its antique value. Bunches of inscribed copper plates in Tamil and old Malayalam version were also vanished. One of the copper plate remained there, was using as a platform for diesel generator.
 
During the period of Tippu’s invasion of Kerala, he entered Angamaly in November 1789, by destroying the Nedumkotta (a fort), which was built exclusively aiming to protect Travancore from Tippu’s attack. Tippu Sultan attacked on three ancient churches of Angamaly including ancient edifices attached with the churches. The remains of the laterite foundation stones of the edifices can still be seen in the St George church ground. The façade of the ruined ancient St George church stood as the entrance of symmetry for more than two centuries and was demolished in September 2005. An account available in Dr. Buchanan's letter (1806) is as follows:
 
“When Tippu waged war with the King of Travancore in 1791, he sent detachments in every direction to destroy the Christian churches, and particularly the ancient edifices at Angamaly; two thousand men penetrated into the mountains, and were directed to the place by the sound of its bells. They sprung a mine under the altar walls of each church, and the inhabitants who had fled to the higher mountains witnessed the explosion. But the walls of the grand front being five feet and a half thick (I measured them yesterday), they did not attempt to demolish them for want of powder. In the mean time Tippu, hearing that Lord Cornwallis had invaded Mysore, Suddenly recalled his church destroying detachments. Next year Tippu was obliged to sign any terms that were offered him; but Lord Cornwallis forgot to desire him to rebuild the Christian churches. The inhabitants, however have rendered them fit for public worship; and have proceeded some way in restoring the Cathedral to its former state. The Archbishop’s residence and all the other public buildings are destroyed. The priests led me over the ruins, and showed me the vestiges of their ancient grandeur, asking me if I thought their Zion would ever be rebuilt. Angamaly is built on a hill. I told them, that their second temple would perhaps, have more glory than their first”
 
“Two of the churches here are Roman, the third Syrian. But the two former would gladly return to their mother church”.
 
The renovation work of ruined St George’s church by Tippu was actually initiated by Paramakal Thoma Katanar and the work was completed after his period. This rebuilt church was partially demolished during 2003-04, for making facilities for the construction of new modern church.
 
Angamaly is an important Diocese of the Syrian Orthodx churches. The present renovated St Mary’s Jacobite church is enriched with ancient mural paintings (17th century) on the walls, are noteworthy; especially the popular wall- paintings of ‘the hell’ and ‘the heaven’. The hell is portrayed with Hindu iconographic codes, which is evident from the Bellzebool devil on the top, looking like a Hindu demon. Most of these attractive paintings are partially spoiled with the electrical wiring works


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SUNDAY, 30 OCTOBER 2011

Pattanam and Portugese-The International undercurrents beneath Pattanam Comes to Light

 

 THE COLONIAL PORTUGESE WHO RANSACKED INDIA, SLAUGHTERED KUNJALI MARAKKAR CHIEFTAIN OF ZAMORIN

RECEIVED BY PATTANAM EXCAVATION TEAM  ON SEPTEMBER 2011


 

 HTTP://UCCOLLEGE.EDU.IN/HISTORY/NEWS/KOTTAPURAM-EXCAVATIONS-VISIT-OF-THE-PORTUGAL-AMBASSADOR-TO-INDIA/

 ACCESSION DATE AND TIME- 31-10-2011;11.00AM

KOTTAPURAM EXCAVATIONS: VISIT OF THE PORTUGAL AMBASSADOR TO INDIA

Jenee Peter participated in the discussions and open forum held at Kottapuram Fort, Kodungallur, Kerala on 23rd September 2011. The session was in connection with the visit of the Portugal Ambassador to India Dr Jorge Roza de Oliveira. The meeting was in attendance of Prof K.S Mathew, Dr Hemachandran, Muziris heritage project and Kottapuram excavations team members, Kerala state department of Archaeology officials and the media. An exhibition was held in the site I connection to the visit. Dr Roza was delighted when Mr. Benny Kuriakose and Prof Mathew pointed out that the Malayalam has more than 400 loan words from Portuguese while Goa which was held till 1974 and seen as the headquarters of the Portuguese empire in the Indies has just five loan words. The oft repeated word in contemporary documents is boss signifying a hegemonic relationship with the natives perhaps.
The visit was followed by a detailed visit of the recently excavated trenches in the site and brain storming. Dr Jenee is archaeological consultant for Kottapuram excavations.


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Constructing St' Thomas Foundation at Pattanam  Through Imported Students From Georgia University
The Hindu-25-12-2011
Thiruvananthapuram Edition

Eleven students from University of Georgia has landed at Kerala to learn through workshop and field studies to learn the historical, theological and sociological aspects of Kerala. The  major themes include-the ancient trading port of Muziris and Christianity in the state.The students will attend prayer service at Cheriyapalli at Kottayam.. Uttiyo Raychaudhari, associate director at the University's  global programmes in Sustainability and Farley  Richmond Professor of Theatre and Film studies are the academic directors of the course
 
 
 
 
 
Financial Irregularities Behind  Pattanam Archaeology Gets Exposed
 
Report Sought on Muziris-Biennale Funding
 
 
Prabhat Nair
 
Last Updated : 21 Dec 2011 11:39:22 AM IST



 












KOCHI: The Kerala Government has sought a report on the funding for the Kochi Muziris Biennale and also about the activities of the Kochi Biennale Foundation, the private trust that has been formed for conducting the biennial. 
“The Culture Secretary has been asked to submit a report at the earliest regarding the funds that have been transferred to the Kochi Biennale Foundation and about its activities,” Cultural Affairs Minister K C Joseph told Express. “The Secretary has been asked to look into the various media reports that had come out against the functioning of the Kochi Muziris Biennial,” he said and added that he had got numerous complaints from artists regarding it. The artists had also given a memorandum against the Kochi Biennale Foundation, Joseph said. Stating that it was the previous government that had allotted `5 crore for the Kochi Muziris Biennale, Joseph said everything would be looked into. A decision would be taken after getting the report from the Secretary, he added. The government was forced to ask the Culture Secretary to furnish a report after the artistic community raised doubts about the functioning of the biennale. Renowned artist and former executive member of Kerala Lalit Kala Akademi B D Dattan said that the entire artistic community was against the way the government had given the power to the  Kochi Biennale Foundation for conducting the biennale. “There is no accounting for the `5 crore that had been already given to the foundation, which has Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu at the top of the trust. How can the government allot such a huge amount of money to a private trust,” he asked.  The foundation is engaged in all sorts of extravaganza and is wasting the tax payers money, he said and added the government should not have sanctioned such a huge amount. Lashing out at the Foundation’s claim that the artists in the state would have a bigger space after the renovation of the Durbar Hall, Dattan said the hall had always been a pride of the artists in the state.


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The International Conspiracy for Establishing Pattanam as St' Thomas site

 

 median.hypotheses.org

Accession date and time 06-12-2011

 Roberta Tomber Stated  that St' Thomas Landed at Pattanam.

Shinu Abraham is consultant -Knanaya Nazrene Christian Academy  at Pattanam

K.P.Shajan and V.Selvakumar Presented Papers on Pattanam for Syro-Malabar Church, Kochi

The International Conspiracy for  Establishing Pattanam as St' Thomas Site

 

 Migration, Trade and Peoples


Publication en ligne de la Royal Asiatic Society : 
Willis M. (ed.), Migration, Trade and Peoples : European Association of South Asian Archaeologists. Proceedings of the eighteenth congress, London, 2005, London : The Br itish Association for South Asian Studies, The British Academy, 2009.
Sommaire
Foreword / Michael Willis. iii
PART 1: INDIAN OCEAN COMMERCE AND THE ARCHAELOGY OF WESTERN INDIA. 1
Editors: Roberta Tomber, Lucy Blue, Shinu Abraham
Preface. 2
- Boats, Routes and Sailing Conditions of Indo-Roman Trade / Lucy Blue. 3
- Strategies for Surface Documentation at the Early Historic site of Pattanam, Kerala: the Malabar Region Archaelogical Survey / Shinu A. Abraham. 14
- Archaeological investigations at Pattanam, Kerala: New Evidence for the Location of Ancient Muziris / V. Selvakumar, K.P. Shajan and Roberta Tomber. 29
- Beyond Western India: the Evidence from Imported Amphorae / Roberta Tomber. 4


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P.J.Cherian and Pattanam -The Integrity of excavations questioned by Indian Archaeologists at three day national conference at Thiruvananthapuram

 
At  Thiruvananthapuram , on 11th November 2011 Prof MGS Narayanan in his presidential address at the annual conference of the Indian Archaeological Society, Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and Indian History and Culture Society  launched a scathing attack on Pattanam excavations and requested the Archaeological Survey of India to undertake the site.On 12th November 2011 eminent archaeologists questioned the integrity of Pattanam excavations. After P.J.Cherian presented his paper on Pattanam at the Indian Archaeological Society Session it was severely criticized. Prof A.Sundara leading archaeologist from Karnataka pointed out that there are no major structural remains at the site. He  asked P.J.Cherian  to precisely record and  classify antiquities from each trench  rather than pooling them together and interpreting them. Prof. Sundara told Cherian that such approaches are not adopted in field archaeology since  cultural material from each trench has its validity. Prof .Sundara also pointed out that the claims of structural remains from Pattanam is questionable. Dr. K.N.Dik**** former Joint Director General of Archaeological Survey of India and Secretary of Indian Archaeological Society questioned the claims of P.J.Cherian that Historical Period at Pattanam goes around 1000 BC. K.N. Dik**** asked Cherian to  be cautious and  review such claims since Historical Period in Peninsular India has not gone beyond 200-300BC 

Other archaeologists questioned Cherians claims of Pattanam as an urban site since nothing was seen in empty  trenches  when they visited Pattanam . To them Cherian told that he  has left the site and structures in the trenches were carried away by local people for which he is not responsible.When he was again asked to clear as to how residential areas, streets , warehouses and wharfs  can be carried away by people Cherian was silent and stood isolated.

Pattanam and P.J.Cherian: Prof. MGS Narayanan Launches Scathing Attack on Pattanam Ideology

 
Professor MGS Narayanan Former Chairman of ICHR and currently Director General of Centre For Heritage Studies, Thrippunithura, Kerala launched a scathing attack on Pattanam archaeological excavations and KCHR. He was delivering the Presidential address of the National Conference of three archaeological socities- The  Indian Archaeological Society,  Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and Indian History and Culture Society  on 11th November 2011 at Mar Gregorious Renewal Centre, Nalanchira Thiruvananthapuram.. Professor MGS Narayanan urged the Archaeological Survey of India to take up Pattanam excavations.The entire archaeological community from all over India numbering 200 and represented by the three socities applauded the suggestions put forward by MGS. Narayanan.Dr. K.N.Dik****, fSecretary of Indian Archaeological Society and former Deputy Director General of Archaeological Survey of India,  Dr. B.R.Mani, currently Additional Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, Professor P.K.Thomas and Professor Pramod Joglekar of  Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies and Professor Vandana Kaushik and Professor Ashalatha Joshi of Indian History and Culture Society were present on the occasion.


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Kochi-Muziris Biennale- The Biggest Story of Corruption in the Indian Art Scene.

 
In a candid interview with the young art critic and theoretician, Premjish Achari, India’s most popular art blogger, art critic, curator and writer, JohnyML unveils the backstage maneuverings of both Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu in misusing public funds to their own ends in the name of Kochi-Muziris Biennale.

NO%2BBose.jpg
(NO Bose Krishnamachari- from Bose' Dubai show. Sudarshan Shetty, Bose Krishnamachari, JohnyML and Shankar Natarajan)


Premjish Achary: Kochi-Muziris Biennale seems to have got into a controversy regarding alleged misusing of public funds and lack of transparency. And you are amongst the few people who have raised a voice against the proposed Biennale. Now as there is a controversy pertaining to it, what is your stand on this issue?


premjish.jpg
(Premjish Achari)

JohnyML: Kochi-Muziris Biennale was destined to get into this controversy from the very day of its inception. I have been only wondering why there is no public hue and cry against it till an article written by the noted journalist Viju V.Nair appeared in one of the prominent Malayalam weeklies called ‘Madhyamam.’ If you remember, it was in February 2011 the formal declaration of this proposed biennale happened in Kochi with much fanfare. Two artists namely Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu have been projected as the front persons of this project. But except for these two people none in the Indian art scene knew what exactly was going to happen with this project. Even today none knows what is happening inside this Biennale project. It was communicated in trickles that the project was going to be funded by the government of Kerala. And a whopping amount of Rs.72 crores is the project estimate. To an interview given to the Art Newspaper, London, Riyas Komu had said that one third of this amount would come from the State government, and the second portion of it would be raised through the central government agencies and the rest would be raised from the private sector. The government of Kerala gave an initial funding of Five Crore Rupees to the Kochi Muziris Biennale Foundation in March 2011. But today, by the end of 2011, the Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu say that the money is over and they need another Five Crores from the state government urgently. Interestingly, apart from the renovation of the Durbar Hall in Kochi they don’t have anything substantial to show or claim before the public. There is some mystery behind this biennale project; one, there is no accountability and two, there is no transparency.

Premjish Achari: Why do you say that there is no accountability and transparency? What kind of accountability and transparency are you expecting from these project managers?


jml.jpg
(JohnyML)

JohnyML: I believe in the values of democracy and a non-corrupt society is what I am aspiring for. When public money is spent on anything, the public has the right to ask why it is spent and on what it is spent. When a cultural project like a Biennale happens, people have the right to see what exactly is going on behind the scenes. Let me tell you, the people in India or in Kerala are not dumb people. They want to know why the state government has agreed to spend Rs.25 crore on a project like this and what was the reason for believing in only two artists out of the millions of other artists, historians, art scholars, curators and experts in this country.


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(Partners in Crime? - Bose and Riyas)

Premjish Achari: I would like to intervene at this point and need a clarification. Could you please make it a bit clearer? The problem is there in the Biennale organization or in the way the funds are used?



JohnyML: In both. Many people do not know that the idea of this Biennale originated almost two years back. The context was not exactly a biennale. Bose Krishnamachari owns a plot near Aluva (near Kochi) and his idea was to build a private museum for contemporary art. He had big ambitions as the market was booming and money was coming in. Bose had even made an architectural model of this museum and when he knew that the funds were not coming in, he had even exhibited this model in a couple of exhibitions in India and abroad. When the economic recession struck, it became impossible for Bose to continue with this project. To make this museum possible, he with his friend Riyas Komu approached M.A.Baby, the minister of education and culture at that time. M.A.Baby, it is said, told Bose that he would not be able to help to establish a private museum but if anything happens in the public sector, as a minister he could do something towards it. It was then this idea of Biennale had come up. There were a series of meetings between these three people in Mumbai and Trivandrum since June 2010.

Today Bose and Riyas claim that the government of Kerala approached them to do a Biennale in Kochi, which is very difficult to gulp without asking a few questions. First of all why the Government of Kerala approach two individual artists living in Mumbai to do an international show in Kerala? Secondly, when the idea was mooted there was no Kochi-Muziris Biennale Foundation. It was a quick formation with five members, Bose Krishnamachari as president, Riyas Komu as secretary, Bonny Thomas (a low profile cartoonist) as treasurer and V.Sunil of W+K as the member. Though the foundation’s head office is in Bose’s studio in Borivili, the foundation is registered in Sreemoolanagaram, a village near Eranakulam.

Within three months after registering this foundation, in March 2011 the CPM led government in Kerala allotted a fund of Rs.5 crores to this organization and it was routed through the Muziris Heritage Trust. In the MOU between the foundation and government of Kerala (dept of Tourism), interestingly there was no clause written so that the foundation stood answerable to the finance department. The idea of accountability was flouted at the initial stage itself. That means, the intentions of making use of this money and the amounts that were supposed to flow into the Foundation’s kitty were not that good. It is quite alarming that the so called cultural activists getting into large scale financial corruption.

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(Suresh Kalmadi- Corruption charges regarding Commonwealth Games organisation)

Premjish Achari: How do you define corruption in the context of this proposed biennale?



JohnyML: Corruption starts when you obscure information. We have never asked Mr.Amit Judge (the head of former Bodhi) how he spent his money because it was his private money. Even if he keeps information regarding the working of Bodhi under cover we cannot question it because it is his private organization and it is his private fund. But here in the case of Kochi-Muziris Biennale, the corruption is not just about misusing funds, it is about misleading people and safeguarding information.

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(Bose Krishnamachari)


Look at the organization’s character. We have Bose as program head and Riyas as executive head. To read it in different way, they are the official commissioners and curators of this biennale. At the same time, they are the fund raisers as well as fund users. And now, if we ask who are these two people? They are two moderately successful artists living in Mumbai. Bose has curated a few significant and many insignificant shows. Riyas’ claim to fame is that he has once been in Venice Biennale. But we have several other artists better equipped and better qualified that these two. After all, if I quote an artist friend, ‘both of them are only BFAs’.

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(A.Raja, former minister- in for 3 G spectrum corruption)


Besides, if you see these guys have asked for Rs.4.9 crores as their personal fee to conduct this Biennale. And biennale cannot be a short term affair. In the project report that the government approved without checking facts it says that the rent, renovation and functioning expenditure would be met by the funds provided by the state government. That means, as we know the biennale offices are Bose’ and Riyas’ studios in Borivili, in the coming years, if the agreement stands, Kerala government will provide money to do their private business. 

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(Riyas Komu)

When the declaration of this project happened in February 2011, Bose invited a few artists and the only art critic he invited to the function was Uma Nair, a newspaper columnist who writes on art. She was the only representative from the art scene other than a few artists. That means Bose and Riyas did not want, from the day one onwards, anyone from the art scene to have a say in this project. The organizational structure proves that Bose and Riyas want to make it a private affair at the expense of public money.


Premjish Achari: So, what? Why cannot we have two private individuals initiating a project like this? Why do you insist that there should be more people into it?



JohnyML: Premjish, if Bose and Riyas are using their own hard earned money and they raise some fund from the private sector to establish a biennale like this there is no problem. Even if government is strategically involved in such projects nobody can question it. Only thing is that then it would not be a ‘biennale’ of its name’s worth. There are several private biennales across the globe where anybody could get any kind of awards. But here this biennale is primarily funded by the state government. In that case, we cannot let the two individuals to call the shots.

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(Bose and Riyas)

Now let us take the way the international biennales function. There is an organization and there are collaborations between the public and private sectors. There will be an advisory committee and committee of experts and there will be members with executive charges and powers. These committees work in tandem with each other and there is a decentralized way of functioning. That is at the organizational level. Coming to the intellectual part of it, there are several expert committees that organize seminars both domestic and international, there are educational programs and many other reach out activities. Look at the Think Fest organized by the Tehelka in Goa and the Jaipur literary festival. Both are world class programs with strategic partnership with the local governments. They are not getting into controversy. Why? Because they are transparent and they don’t do it to pocket the public fund. Here in the case of Kochi Biennale, none of these formalities are followed. There has been no activity apart from the renovation of the Durbar Hall which is another huge controversy.


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(Yamuna-Elbe Project in Delhi)

Premjish Achari: You are talking about misinformation, obscurantism, lack of transparency and now lack of activities. How do you elaborate on that?



JohnyML: Let’s take two recent examples in India- ten years of Khoj and the more recent Yamuna-Elbe project. Both are initiated by private agencies with the strategic government participation. There have been several layers of preparation including various seminars, reach out programs and artists’ exchanges. Most of them have happened under the public eyes. Now we have had this Delhi Biennale project almost ten years back. This was looking for the possibilities of creating a Delhi Biennale. Instead of straight away going for crores worth of government funding, the Delhi Biennale Committee went for a series of discussions, seminars and debates, and after two years of thorough brainstorming the project was shelved for the time being and even one of the leading figures of the Delhi Biennale Committee, Gita Kapur declared that Delhi Biennale would remain as a platform to discuss and theorize the biennales. Everything went on record. And this effort had all the intellectuals’ support and it was an inclusive platform.

Khoj%2Bpublic%2Bart.jpg

Now, one year gone by with the Kochi biennale, with adequate government funding, not a single public project or seminar has been organized by the foundation. No advisory board has been instituted. Not a single person from Indian art scene is apprised of the activities of this foundation. It raises questions about the intentions of both Bose and Riyas. Why didn’t they want to organize a committee which has the stalwarts from the Indian art scene that include the art historians, theoreticians, cultural theorists, critics, gallerists, collectors, social scientists, city planners and so on? Hence, we understand that for Bose and Riyas it is an ego trip with no respect for the public or government. 

If you look at the website of the Kochi Muziris Biennale, which is also listed amongst the other thirty seven biennales all over the world in the Biennale Foundation website (a unified portal for the world biennales), no information is available. It has a flash driven home page with the images of a few dilapidated structures in the Fort Kochi area. The written information is limited to a mission statement, an about us, a press release and two photographs of Bose Krishnamachari sitting with a laptop in front of him. Most of the links are blank. I am told the foundation has conducted some secrete seminars in some five star hotels in Kerala. If so at least there should be some pictures and information regarding those should be there in the website. This is what I again say that there is a tremendous about of lack of transparency and secrecy in this project which leads naturally to the issue of misuse of public funds to private ends.

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(Durbar Hall, Kochi- in the name of Renovation)

Premjish Achari: Now it is alleged that the renovation of Durbar Hall in Kochi has eaten up all the money and the Biennale Foundation is in a cash crunch situation. What exactly happened in Durbar Hall issue? 



JohnyML: Had it not been Durbar Hall issue, the corrupt practices of both Bose and Riyas would have continued away from public scrutiny. One of the agreements that Bose made on behalf of Kochi Biennale Foundation and the Kerala Lalitha Kala Akademy was that the foundation would renovate the heritage building, Durbar Hall and in return to that the foundation should be given the permission to use the premises free of cost in every two years for during the biennales. As per the initial agreement the renovation was supposed to be completed by mid 2011 and was to be handed over to the Lalit Kala Akademy. However Bose could not finish the work within the stipulated time. So he approached the academy again with a request and the then committee accepted his request and gave him a four months extension to finish the work. As per the second agreement the work was finished and the building was handed over to the academy. By that time the new government has come up in Kerala and as per there were changes in the academy administration also. When the renovated Durbar Hall was re-presented to the state with an exhibition organized by the Lalitha Kala Akademy, to the horror of Bose and Riyas, they found their names were not written on the plaque. They went to town with a press conference alleging that it was they who spent the money and they were not acknowledged in the final outcome.

vijus%2527s%2Barticle.jpg
(Viju V Nair's article in Madhyamam- the first open opinion against the highhandedness of the Biennale organizers)

This press conference by Bose was the first one since the declaration of the Biennale. That too was not for displaying the accomplishment but to complaint. Now let us ask a simple question: How did Kochi Biennale Foundation itself came as the ‘contractors’ of the renovation of the Durbar Hall? If they wanted Government involvement why didn’t they ask the government directly to renovate it but under their supervision? How did Bose’ brother became the chief contractor of the whole renovation process? How did the foundation claim that it was ther money? Today, it is said that Rs.3.5 crores is spent on renovating that one single building. I am told that except for the new lighting, false walls and split air conditioners no fundamental changes have been done in the name of renovation. And this unearthly sum of Rs.3.5 crores is just spent on this. Ajayakumar, the former secretary of Laliha Kala Akademy says that in his tenure when the renovation was done it had not exceeded Rs.25 lakhs. And also the then cultural minister T.K.Ramakrishnan was skeptical about air-conditioning the whole building.

durbar%2Brenovation.jpg
(This costed Rs.3.5 crores !)

Today, it is clear that split air conditioners do not work in such huge buildings. We need centralized air condition with an external air cooling unit. As it is a heritage building you cannot build cooling units near by the heritage building. So you need to find a different place to set up this. Bose has not observed any of these formalities and there is no account for how this 3.5 crores is spent. Also it is said in the project report submitted to the government by Bose and Riyas (read the foundation) it is clearly mentioned that part of the money will be used for setting up and enhancing the offices of both Bose and Riyas in Borivili. As we all know from the given address that these offices are nothing other than their personal studios. It is also said that the people hired as office staff were not given salaries for a long time and most of them left the organization in due course of the last one year. So we need to ask where the rest of the Rs.1.5 crores gone? 

riyas%2Bambi%2Bvalent.jpg
(Riyas Komu- An Ambi- Valent explanation)

Premjish Achari: There is also an allegation against Bose and Riyas that they have not observed the rules of the Archeological Survey of India that takes care of the heritage building, Durbar Hall.


JohnyML: That is quite a serious allegation to which these two parties stand answerable. But interestingly, when asked by a journalist from the Indian Express Newspaper, Riyas Komu said audaciously that it was not the concern of the foundation as the building was handed over to them by the Lalitha Kala Akademy and to which it was given by the government of Kerala. First of all, this man with a simple BFA degree in hand does not have any respect for the people of this country as he is out and out here to plunder the public funds. Otherwise how as an artist he could have said such a dismissive answer? Now after spending this princely sum of Rs.3.5 crores on the renovation of Durbar Hall, he says that he is not responsible for observing the directives of the respected Archaeological Survey of India. Interestingly, this is the same person who started a very ‘revolutionary’ newspaper from his studio this year with its first issue dealing with the lack of sanitized toilets for the poor migrants in and around his ‘home town’ of Borivili. The same person, after a few months is out there to grab the public money for private use. In of the press reports it is said that Riyas wanted to bring political art to India through this proposed Biennale. And even they were trying to get Ai Wei Wei from China. I wonder whether these guys have ever understood anything political about art or art about being political. May be they have learnt the art of politics along the way and the corruption accompanying it.

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(M.A.Baby- former Culture and Education Minister, Government of Kerala)

Premjish Achari: Where does the former minister M.A.Baby stand in this issue?


JohnyML: M.A.Baby is not a novice in politics or in organizational activities. After student politics and an active political career in Kerala, he was sent to Delhi by the CPM. Baby was here in Delhi for around ten years and he was one of the major supporters of Swaralaya, a cultural organization that promoted music. I believe M.A.Baby was sincerely hoping something to happen in Kerala during his tenure as a cultural and education minister. But when I look beyond that, I have all the reasons to think that Baby had some strange fascination for these two guys. In June 2010, when I was invited by the Film Akademy to set up a video show along with the international short film festival, M.A.Baby took a special interest in introducing Bose and Riyas to the press, almost avoiding me and Gigi Scaria, who was a participating artist and an already declared Venice Biennale invitee. He introduced Bose and Riyas as ‘internationally acclaimed’ artists. I believe the discussions for this biennale was already on or about to begin then. It is quite surprising that Baby went to the Venice Biennale in 2011, with Bose and Riyas and attended a lavish party thrown by these two guys there. It is strange that even after becoming an opposition MLA, Baby was requesting the present Congress government to give more funds to Bose and Riyas. I don’t understand the psychology behind this. One needs to probe further on this nexus. Also we should ask why the government of Kerala has never given such kind of funds to the other academies working from Kerala. Just look at the annual grants given to the Lalit Kala Akademy, Sangeeta Nataka Akademy, Sahitya Akademy, Cartoon Akademy and so on. The Cartoon Akademy gets an annual grant of Rs.10,000/- (Ten Thousand only) from the government of Kerala. Isn’t that amount ridiculously inadequate for an acdemy which has been there for more than ten years? How did a government with Baby as the cultural minister overlook all these and then suddenly decided to give a grant of Rs.25 crores to a newly formed foundation by a few private people? And once the government has agreed to do so, these guys are going to get an annual grant and full-fledged government support for the rest of their lives because Biennales are not done over night. It needs round the clock activities in all the 365 days in a year. This is one of the most strategic corruption cases in India in which unfortunately M.A.Baby is involved.

Bose-Krishnamachari.jpg
(Different in appearance always- What about this time? Bose Krishnamachari- Picture Courtesy- Malini Ramani's website)

Premjish Achari: Everyone knows that you were a good friend of Bose. But now you are very critical about him. Is there any personal reason to do so?



JohnyML: Bose is a good friend and I am sure he would remain one if he steers clear this controversy and comes out clean. I have written a lot about him and his works. I have helped him in formulating several of his curatorial ideas. He used to ask me for help because he could never articulate things theoretically. Even today, if someone asks me to write about his works I would happily do that. But he seems to have developed this ego of being the ‘biggest’ artist in India who could do anything under sun. He is fashion crazy and is boastful. He had even declared that he is a communist and bourgeoisie at the same time. That means he has not digested the theoretical polarities of these two notions. Off late, he had even compared himself with M.F.Husain. But for me, Bose is one of those artists left the home land to struggle in Mumbai and made it to the top. He is one of the many. He is a restless person with a lot of aspirations to do things. But I would have appreciated his efforts if he had approached this ‘biennale’ in a democratic fashion and stood in public clean and uncorrupt. He should have asked this question whether he and Riyas stand qualified to do a biennale all by themselves. He should have respected the people in this country and also the artists and art fraternity in particular. He has proved himself to be power hungry and prone to corruption. I wish he could come out of it soon with clean hands.

Bose%2BPrasad.jpg
(How long shall we blind fold the law? Bose with Prasad Raghavan and his work)

Premjish Achari: Okay, (smiles). Where does this Biennale stand now? And are you out and out to stop it by asking for clarifications and all?



JohnyML: As far as I know, further funding of this biennale has been stopped by the government of Kerala. 

I am not against a grand opportunity that Kerala would have perhaps through this biennale. I want it to happen in a very democratic and intelligent way. I demand transparency and inclusive methods of functioning. I do not want any position in this biennale. I have a clean history and I am not power hungry. My strength is my conscience and the artists, writers, cultural activists and well meaning politicians in this country. I want India to be a strong country in all the fields including arts. And I believe, if we are against Rajas, Kalmadis and people like them, why should we not stand against the people who do corruption in the name of art?


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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji The Truth is official sword is the power of this false religion. I have linked the book, the population of Christians by 325 is extimated around 1- 1.5 Million, but in next 50 years it swelled to 90% + of Roman population of 60 millions. Swod won over
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Today when more light is there more than 90% Europe churches are empty and nearly 40% population is declaring that they do not belong to Any religion -why
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Absolute nonsense. Read the history about Emperor Julian Apostata. Why coudn't he repaganize the Roman Empire?
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji I am quoting from Peer Reviewd articles and books.
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer So what do you read in peer reviewed book about the rise of Christianity in China in the 20. century? Did it rise by the sword? How many Christians had been in China in the year 1900 and how many are there now, Karuppaiah Ji? The Church of the East has had 80 mill. members in Asia around the year 900. Were they won with the sword? What do say your articles about them?
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji India got its missionary in 16th century and now around 3%, Sword and money, muscle power alone is the strength of Christianity
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Is this an answer to my question?
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Vatican historians gives this figures.
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Sword and money and muscle power alone have built Chinas Christianity?
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji If one in Ten thousand was the christian population after 100 years after Jesus died for his Sins, it can only tells how Fraud are Acts of Apostles tales
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Vatican historians say there is no ancient Syriac church in India?
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji The way American money poured with church and divisive forces in India, we are living proof. I have not studied on China
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji As per Archaeology Kodungallur was below sea till around 800 CE. Their could be few boat refugees who came in 9th century, but business converting missionary came in 16th century
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer I'm sure you never will study the rise of Christianity in China in the communist time and heavy persecution without any American money. It would destroy your illusion.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji When Islam followed the same policy of Church, convert or get killed, few boat of refugees could have landed in 8 ot 9 century, but no historical proof about them is reliable, Nestorians - Manichaens all are speculated, few hundreds till Portuguese came
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer So the 100 mil. actual living Christians in China, started by 1 mill in 1900 are all speculative?
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer The spreading of the Nestorians was all speculative? So perhaps my doctoral promoter, who had written a dissertation about them (which was surely 'peer reviewed') does not existiert at all?
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji My simple google search puts it around less than one third of figure you speculate. I am pained by the Christianity in India killing Evangelicalically manmade Famines around 80- 100 million and took on Israel and Bible tales, follow most theological researches and Archaeology of Levant over last 20 years
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Sir, the way Church has money and spent in India- Catholic church has 100% funded Tamil Christian dept and put that mythical St.Thomas influence made Hinduism. When in a Christian meet that Doctoral thesis author was questioned he said Portughese created this speculation and you should ask Santhome church. Every research about xty is by church funded scholars and that is level here
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer "At the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, when the Communist party defeated the Nationalists and founded the People’s Republic of China, Christians in China numbered half a million. Yet almost seventy years later, under the Chinese government’s har...See more
( English Version | Simplified Chinese…
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji God save China from Satanic wirshippers of Bible
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer So Karuppaiah Ji, give me the source which will show me that Evangelicals have caused famines which killed 100 mil. Indians. Peer review please.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji The first famine in Bengal was that missionaries forced Farmers to grow Indigo and Kosher Marijuana, the soil dud not support and Famine killed one third of Bengal. Once train rails were laid, British took away the yield at throw away prices with missionary as incharge so that total crops were grabbed, Madras famine killed more than 20 milliion
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Just one Britisher book of Roy Maxam- Great hedges to tax salt. Christian British government was directed in many ways by Churchmen.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji http://www.amazon.in/Great-Hedge-India.../dp/0786708409
 
Remarkable" and "astonishing," says Jan Morris of Roy Moxham's account of his search for "one of…
amazon.in
 
Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Missionaries forced farmers? Which force did Evangelical missionaries have had in this time?
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Indian Christians before the arriving of the Portugese:
"Jenkins accounts for this lack of records by stating that “Unlike other churches,
which so often feature in the record of martyrdoms and persecutions, the Thomas...See more
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji I said could be few hundred Nestorians who had moved to Arabia due to Christian persecution faced Muhammaden persecution and came as refugees in late 8th or nineth century were there. Forget India- tales about Jerusalem church in Acts has no historical facts. None of the Apostle death or even Paul has no historical value.
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Karuppaiah Ji You also will find somebody who claims that the earth is flat who does have an earned Phd and is writing articles peer reviewed by the 'flat earth society'.
There are millions of people who do not believe that the holocaust happened besid...See more
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Christian church said Sun is rounding the earth as very clearly it is mentione in Bible and Galileo was sentenced to life by Church. You deny that 100 Million or more Indians killed by Evengelical Christian rule when it is a fact.
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Gottfried Sommer 100 million Indians killed by Evangelical Christians? 
Sources please!...See more
 
Way back in 1991, when I was an impoverished and often…
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji The Church controlled Universities world over has made the truths lie under carpet that it was Church Evangelists who were in Slave trade. Truth is coming out. One such https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/feb/09/religion.world
· Guilt must be admitted, archbishop tells synod · Pledge to fight against modern slavery
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji http://www.aljazeera.com/.../pope-apologises-church-role...
Catholic church was accused of being close to Hutu-led government in 1994 when 800,000 mostly Tutsis were killed.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Christian British rule is part of the devil church and its Evangelical movements. https://en.wikipedia.org/.../Timeline_of_major_famines_in...
, from 1858 to 1947). The year 1765 is chosen as the start year because that year the British East India Company, after its victory in the
en.wikipedia.org
 
Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji If you researach on each of them, you can realise more that Churchmen were the driving force behind all this misrule
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer All human cultures had practices slave trade. Only Protestant and Evangelical Christians have protested against.
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Karuppaiah Ji I find nothing about Evangelicals in your postings because obviously you even don't know the difference between Catholics and Evangelicals.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Gottfried Sommer the Protestant stopping is after Atheist and others got hold of church killings
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Karuppaiah Ji http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/d/davis-victorian.html
 
"Here's the northeast monsoon at last," said Hon. Robert Ellis, C.B., junior member of the Governor's Council, Madras, as a heavy shower of rain fell at Coonoor, on a day towards the end of October 1876, when the members of the Madras Government were returning from their summer sojourn on the hills.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji https://fbreporter.org/.../genocide-the-british-dont.../
 
British Colonials Starved…
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Karuppaiah Ji Atheists have commited the first genocid in modern times in the Vendeè after the French Revolution.
Protestants have started to argue against Slavery in the 16 century, for example Gisbert Voetius. 
There was no Enligthenment in this tim...See more
 
1…
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer http://andrewhimes.net/john-wesley-abolition
In the early 1800s, a principal leader of the revival movement in east Tennessee was Samuel Doak, the Presbyterian minister who had delivered his famous “Sword of the Lord” sermon in 1780 sending the Tennessee militia off to defeat the British. As the fires of revival flared up in the 1800s, Doa...
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Gottfried Sommer
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Gottfried Sommer Karuppaiah Ji I find nothing about Evangelicals in your postings. Please show me where I can find it.
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Any Indian who has learnt History would see Christian cult its evil church as the evil which took away its weatlth which had 25% of world GDP TO 1% and by misrule killed more than 100 millions
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji British rule used two tools- one ICS and two Bishops to control India, Bishop role is subdued and recorded very sparingly, the great hedge of 2500 miles long was not recorded till a British citizen found it accidentally. So record and role of churches are recorded but not properly http://www.amazon.in/Great-Hedge-India.../dp/0786708409
 
Remarkable" and "astonishing," says Jan Morris of Roy Moxham's account of his search for "one of the least-known wonders of Queen Victoria's India," and John Keay finds it "a compelling read, simply told, and simply wonderful." An unquestionably fascinating tale, as well as a travel book and hist...
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Karuppaiah Ji
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Karuppaiah Ji Chrush is notorious for its role in fraud history making - now where in Kodungallur as per Professional digging in 1946 and 1979 by ASI said the total area was below Sea till 8th century. Chruch funded Marxist KCHR Made fraud Archaeology and spread Pattanam myths and this in 21st century. Chruch and evil forces do every thing to spread false hood and devil dead man worship. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10206578001528281&set=a.3130113831316.101529.1818855406&type=3
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Vedam Vedaprakash
· 3 hrs ·

Ayodhya Temple : Double Standards of
Left Historians - Book Release
G.P.Srinivasan (Mobile: 8870982483)
The Left-Islamic and pseudo secular historians in India ...have always denied the existence of a
Hindu temple at Ayodhya.
Veteran archaeologists such as Professor B.B. Lal, late Dr.S.P. Gupta, Y.D. Sharma and
K.M.Srivastava presented convincing archaeological evidence of a temple beneath the Babri Masjid
at Ayodhya. The team found that the objects were datable to the period ranging from the 10th
through the 12th century AD. Besides Vaishnavite images and that of Shiva–Parvati, the unearthed
objects at Ayodhya also included a number of amakalas, i.e., the cogged-wheel type architectural
element which crown the bhumi shikharas or spires of subsidiary shrines, as well as the top of the
spire or the main shikhara. There was other evidences such as cornices, pillar capitals, mouldings,
door jambs with floral patterns precisely showing clinching evidence regarding the existence
of a 10th-12th century temple complex at the site of Ayodhya.
The left historians such as Professors, R.S. Sharma, Romila Thapar, Irfan Habib, D.N. Jha and
K.N. Panikkar from Jamia Millia, Delhi, JNU and Aligarh Universities denied this archaeological
evidence at Ayodhya for their pseudo-secular interests.
The current book titled “Pattanam: Constructs, Contexts and Interventions” by Dr. B.S.
Harishankar was released on March 17, 2017 at Kozhikkode in Kerala by Professor MGS Narayanan,
former ICHR Chairman. The book exposes the excavations conducted by Kerala Council for Historical
Research (henceforth KCHR) an NGO organised by CPM, SYRIAN CHRISTIAN LOBBY led
Left government in Kerala in 2004 to excavate Pattanam, a site in Ernakulam district.
The book brings to light how the left historians joined hands with Christian church in Kerala to
establish that Pattanam was the ancient site of Muziris where Saint Thomas landed in India in
200AD to preach Christianity. The Marxist historians led by Professor K.N. Panikkar from JNU who
is now chairman of KCHR, manipulated archaeological evidence, manufactured new evidence and
spread huge lies to establish that Pattanam had historical relations with Jerusalem, Israel and other
countries in west Asia from 1000BC. The director of Pattanam excavations is Dr.P.J.Cherian, a
church historian who is supported by University of Rome and Vatican.
This book brings to light the fraud research of Marxist historians who work with Christian
church at Pattanam. The KCHR has huge financial and academic support of a Euro–American-
Church lobby outside India. The KCHR has kept away ASI (Archeological Survey of India) and
Indian Universities from Pattanam excavations. These left historians who now try to establish myth
of St’ Thomas as history, simultaneously oppose clinching archaeological evidence at Ayodhya.
They have no moral and academic right to deny the existence of a Hindu temple at Ayodhya.
*****************

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 Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion[note 3] or synthesis[6][note 4] of various Indian cultures and traditions,[7][note 5]with diverse roots[8][note 6] and no founder.[9] This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE[10] following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE).

Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmologyshared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites.

Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition.

Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa (monastic practices) to achieve Moksha.[19] Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings (ahimsa), patience, forbearance, self-restraint, and compassion, among others.

The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term and did not refer to a religion.

Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.[37][38][39] Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult.[23] The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it".[40] Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and "a way of life."[41][note 1] From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma (the eternal or ancient dharma).[42]

The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion.[43] Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism,[44][note 10] and have also been taken over by critics of the Western view on India.[45][note 11]

Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion[note 3] or synthesis[note 4][6] of various Indian cultures and traditions.[7][note 5] which emerged after the Vedic period, between 500[10]-200[11] BCE and c. 300 CE,[10] the beginning of the "Epic and Puranic" c.q. "Preclassical" period.[10][11]

Hinduism's tolerance to variations in belief and its broad range of traditions make it difficult to define as a religion according to traditional Western conceptions.[77]

Some academics suggest that Hinduism can be seen as a category with "fuzzy edges" rather than as a well-defined and rigid entity. Some forms of religious expression are central to Hinduism and others, while not as central, still remain within the category. Based on this idea Ferro-Luzzi has developed a 'Prototype Theory approach' to the definition of Hinduism

Hinduism has been described as a tradition having a "complex, organic, multileveled and sometimes internally inconsistent nature."[79] Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a creed",[23] but is rather an umbrella term comprising the plurality of religious phenomena of India.[80] According to the Supreme Court of India,

Unlike other religions in the World, the Hindu religion does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more".[81]

Part of the problem with a single definition of the term Hinduism is the fact that Hinduism does not have a founder.[82] It is a synthesis of various traditions,[83] the "Brahmanical orthopraxy, the renouncer traditions and popular or local traditions."[75]

Some Hindu philosophies postulate a theistic ontology of creation, of sustenance, and of the destruction of the universe, yet some Hindus are atheists, as they view Hinduism more as philosophy than religion.[citation needed]

Sense of unity

Despite the differences, there is also a sense of unity.[84] Most Hindu traditions revere a body of religious or sacred literature, the Vedas,[85] although there are exceptions.[86]These texts are a reminder of the ancient cultural heritage and point of pride for Hindus,[87][88] with Louis Renou stating that "even in the most orthodox domains, the reverence to the Vedas has come to be a simple raising of the hat".[87][89]

Halbfass states that, although Shaivism and Vaishaism may be regarded as "self-contained religious constellations",[84] there is a degree of interaction and reference between the "theoreticians and literary representatives"[84] of each tradition which indicates the presence of "a wider sense of identity, a sense of coherence in a shared context and of inclusion in a common framework and horizon".[84]

Indigenous developments

The notion of common denominators for several religions and traditions of India was already noted from the 12th century CE on.[90] Lorenzen traces the emergence of a "family resemblance", and what he calls as "beginnings of medieval and modern Hinduism" taking shape, at c. 300-600 CE, with the development of the early Puranas, and continuities with the earlier Vedic religion.[91] Lorenzen states that the establishment of a Hindu self-identity took place "through a process of mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim Other."[92] According to Lorenzen, this "presence of the Other"[92] is necessary to recognise the "loose family resemblance" among the various traditions and schools,[93]

According to Nicholson, already between the 12th and the 16th centuries "certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy."[94] The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley.[95] Hacker called this "inclusivism"[85] and Michaels speaks of "the identificatory habit".[12] Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus,[96] and a process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other",[97][note 12] which started well before 1800.[98] Michaels notes:

As a counteraction to Islamic supremacy and as part of the continuing process of regionalization, two religious innovations developed in the Hindu religions: the formation of sects and a historicization which preceded later nationalism [...] [S]aints and sometimes militant sect leaders, such as the Marathi poet Tukaram (1609-1649) and Ramdas (1608-1681), articulated ideas in which they glorified Hinduism and the past. The Brahmins also produced increasingly historical texts, especially eulogies and chronicles of sacred sites (Mahatmyas), or developed a reflexive passion for collecting and compiling extensive collections of quotations on various subjects.[99]

This inclusivism[100] was further developed in the 19th and 20th centuries by Hindu reform movements and Neo-Vedanta,[101] and has become characteristic of modern Hinduism.[85]

Colonial influences

See also: Orientalism

The notion and reports on "Hinduism" as a "single world religious tradition"[102] was popularised by 19th-century proselytizing missionaries and European Indologists, roles sometimes served by the same person, who relied on texts preserved by Brahmins (priests) for their information of Indian religions, and animist observations which the missionary Orientalists presumed was Hinduism.[102][57][103] These reports influenced perceptions about Hinduism. Some scholars state that the colonial polemical reports led to fabricated stereotypes where Hinduism was mere mystic paganism devoted to the service of devils,[note 13] while other scholars state that the colonial constructions influenced the belief that the VedasBhagavad GitaManusmriti and such texts were the essence of Hindu religiosity, and in the modern association of 'Hindu doctrine' with the schools of Vedanta (in particular Advaita Vedanta) as paradigmatic example of Hinduism's mystical nature".[105][note 14] Pennington, while concurring that the study of Hinduism as a world religion began in the colonial era, disagrees that Hinduism is a colonial European era invention.[112] He states that the shared theology, common ritual grammar and way of life of those who identify themselves as Hindus is traceable to ancient times.[112][note 15]

Beliefs


 

Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to) Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action, intent and consequences), Moksha (liberation from samsara or liberation in this life), and the various Yogas (paths or practices).[18

Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheismpolytheismpanentheismpantheismpandeismmonism, and atheism among others;[152][153][web 3]and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization.

Authority and eternal truths play an important role in Hinduism.[185] Religious traditions and truths are believed to be contained in its sacred texts, which are accessed and taught by sages, gurus, saints or avatars.[185] But there is also a strong tradition of the questioning of authority, internal debate and challenging of religious texts in Hinduism. The Hindus believe that this deepens the understanding of the eternal truths and further develops the tradition. Authority "was mediated through [...] an intellectual culture that tended to develop ideas collaboratively, and according to the shared logic of natural reason."

These denominations differ primarily in the central deity worshipped, the traditions and the soteriological outlook.[189] The denominations of Hinduism, states Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals practicing more than one, and he suggests the term "Hindu polycentrism".

Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the Shruti and Smriti, as well as developed Shastras with epistemological and metaphysical theories of six classical schools of Hinduism.

 



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