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Melchior (Gondophernes)
King of Arabia and India (Parthia), Melchior was the eldest of the three kings.
He was given the honor of being in front of the others at the Infant’s crib.
He gave gold, silk, and precious stones to the Christ Child.
Fontanini Nativities 5 Melchior.htm
          The mission of St. Thomas to the court of Gondophernes in Parthia took place on his way to India. It is described in the ‘Acts of St. Thomas’ written by Bardesanes. In the first Act of St. Thomas Our Lord is said to have sold him to the merchant Habban that he might go down to India. But St. Thomas was feeling reluctant to go and therefore said:  “I have not strength enough for this, because I am weak. And I am a Hebrew; how can I teach the Indians? While he was reasoning thus, Our Lord appeared to him in a vision and said to him: “Fear not, Thomas, because my grace is with thee”. But he would not be persuaded at all, but said: “Send me O Lord whithersoever Thou wilt, only to India I will not go”. The typical character of St. Thomas is thus manifested, (refusal signifying the acceptance more faithfully than anyone else).1
        “Then certain merchant, called Habban, an Indian who happened to come into the south country, was sent by Gudnaphar to procure for him a skillful carpenter.”2 This statement of George Moraes reveals that there was a king called Gudnaphar (Gandhappar) ruling in the “south country” of India, which is the Southern Pandian Kingdom of Maanaveera Nadu (from Thiruchendur to Kanyakumari in the South East Coast of India). This fact has been strengthened by Alex Cruz Muthiah’s findings, when he says: “In the middle of the first century Maanaveera Naadu (a part of the Southern Pandian Kingdom) was ruled by an heir of Pandian family and a valiant soldier called Gandhappar.”3
        Another publication regarding the St. Mary’s Church at Thiruvithaankodu (Kanyakumari District) further asserts this fact by saying: “The Chera King Emayavaramban Neduncheralaathan (Cfr. ‘History of Tamil Sangams’ Page 121) who was ruling this province (of Chera Naadu) having Thiruvithaankodu as his Capital from 7 A.D. to 65 A.D., brought St. Thomas, one of Jesus’ twelve Apostles, who was residing with the petty king Gundhappar.” (Cfr. Dhina Malar article on ‘spirituality’ page with the picture of St. Thomas in the ‘Palsuvai Malar’ section dated 13 - 4 – 2003).
          The following passage of the Rampan song also testifies that St. Thomas had something to do with the Pandian Kingdom. “The song tells that Prince Peter or Kepha of Muziris who was one of the Apostle's first converts visited St. Thomas in the Pandian Kingdom and requested him to return to Malabar. The Apostle came back to Coromandal coast. The request was granted and the Apostle accompanied Prince Kepha to Kerala.” - 20k -Cached - Similar pages
           Hence, when Dr. Herbert Thurston referred The Acts of Thomas by saying: “Jesus appeared in a supernatural way to Habban, the envoy of Gundafor (Gundhappar), an Indian king, and sold Thomas to him to be his slave and to serve Gundafor as a carpenter,”4 he meant that St. Thomas was sold to the Pandian King Gandhappar.
        Then Our Lord appeared to St. Thomas once again and instructed him as follows: “Thou shalt go to India, Thomas, and shalt spread the light of eternal life to the people there. Do not be afraid, I will be there with thee. My name will be glorified by thee. Thou wilt preach about Me among different nations and tribes. Thou shalt fight a good fight; and after that I will call thee to enjoy eternal happiness with thy brethren.  Show to the Indians that I am their Lord, and Redeemer thou wilt have to endure great sufferings, but fear not!”5

        At these words St. Thomas fell at the feet of Our Lord and humbly declared: “My Lord and My God”, and whole heartedly accepted to go to India. Immediately he went to St. Peter wished him farewell and started to Caesarea and was waiting for the first ship to set sail for India. There he met Habban. This Habban is not actually an Indian as said above, but originally a Jew settled in Parthia, now a baptized Christian, converted when he had attended the first preaching of St. Peter, who baptized three thousand people at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (See page 28 of George M. Moraes). Habban was a very good friend of the Parthian king Gondophernes and now he had been well acquainted in trade relations with king Gandhappar of the Pandian Kingdom, and had become the king’s chief minister in political affairs. The kingdom of king Gandhappar was known as “Naarankottai” (Maanaveera Naadu) situated in the south-east coast of Tamil Nadu, comprising portions of the present Thiruchendur and Radhapuram Taluks. King Gandhappar was the third Magi King called also as “Gaspar” who was ruling Ceylon and Naarankottai as well.
        Now let us follow St. Thomas the Apostle in his voyage with Habban. Early next morning when Habban was walking along the sea shore of Caesarea, he saw St. Thomas and venerably approaching him asked: “What wouldst thou wish me to do for thee?,” Greeting   him, “O Blessed servant of the Lord Jesus of Nazareth!,” he continued: “The Lord showed thee to me in my dream and He sold thee to my king for twenty pieces of silver. With holy admiration and heavenly joy St. Thomas requested him: “would you please take me in your ship and help me reach India?”  “Let it be done according to thy will” said Habban, and both of them embarked the ship and started their journey.6
        St. Thomas, before going to the Pandian Kingdom, wished to meet Gondophernes the king of Parthia who at that time had Anthropolis (Karachi) as his Capital City. Here there are some confusion among almost all the historians in mixing up the names of Gondophernes and Gundafor. Herbert Thurston relates that Habban and Thomas sailed away until they came to Anthropolis, where they landed and attended the marriage feast of the ruler’s daughter …. And after attending the marriage feast, he says: “Coming to India, Thomas undertook to build a palace for Gundafor.” George Moraes explains that Gondophernes, the successor of king Azes was reigning in the first half of the first century A.D.; and the designation of his kingdom has been understood as Parthia.7 Hence it is clear that king Gondophernes being the king of Parthia was not the same as Gundafor who was the king in South India. And it is certain also that when Herbert Thurston mentions the name Gondophernes or Guduphara, he makes a clear mistake, because Gondophernes was the king of Parthia, whereas Guduphara (Gaspar) was the king in South India.8
        Again through the findings from the discovery of coins, some of the inscriptions are of the Parthian type with Greek legends in Thakthibahi characters, other inscriptions are of the Indian type with legends in an Indian dialect in kharoshthi characters. This is another clear proof that in the first century A.D. Gondophernes whose name appears in the coins was the ruler of the Parthian Kingdom; and Guduphara whose name also appears in the coins was the ruler of the Pandian Kingdom in Tamil Nadu. (Cfr. Herbert Thurston and Alex C. Muthiah as referred above. Coin of Gondophares IV Sases (mid-1st century). Obv: King on horseback, corrupted Greek legend. Gondophares monogram Rev: Zeus, making a benediction sign (Buddhist mudra).Kharoshthi inscription MAHARAJASA MAHATASA TRATARASA DEVAVRADASA GUDAPHARASA SASASA "Great king of kings, divine and Saviour, Gondophares Sases", Buddhist trisulasymbol. Source:
        Here it is fitting to give a part of the original text of the First Act of Thomas taken from the Greek Version translated by M. R. James.

The First Act, when he went into India with Abbanes (Nos. 1 to 3).

          “At that season all we the apostles were at Jerusalem, Simon which is called Peter and Andrew his brother, James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the publican, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Canaanite, and Judas the brother of James: and we divided the regions of the world, that every one of us should go unto the region that fell to him and unto the nation whereunto the Lord sent him.
          “According to the lot, therefore, India fell unto Judas Thomas, which is also the twin: but he would not go, saying that by reason of the weakness of the flesh he could not travel, and ‘I am a Hebrew man; how can I go amongst the Indians and preach the truth?’ And as he thus reasoned and spake, the Saviour appeared unto him by night and saith to him: Fear not, Thomas, go thou unto India and preach the word there, for my grace is with thee. But he would not obey, saying: Whither thou wouldest send me send me, but elsewhere, for unto the Indians I will not go.
          “And while he thus spake and thought, it chanced that there was there a certain merchant come from India whose name was Abbanes, sent from the King Gundaphorus, [Gundaphorus is a historical personage who reigned over a part of India in the first century after Christ. His coins bear his name in Greek, as Hyndopheres] and having commandment from him to buy a carpenter and bring him unto him. Now the Lord seeing him walking in the market-place at noon said unto him: I have a slave that is a carpenter and I desire to sell him. And so saying he showed him Thomas afar off, and agreed with him for three litrae of silver unstamped, and wrote a deed of sale, saying: I, Jesus, the son of Joseph the carpenter, acknowledge that I have sold my slave, Judas by name, unto thee Abbanes, a merchant of Gundaphorus, king of the Indians. And when the deed was finished, the Saviour took Judas Thomas and led him away to Abbanes the merchant, and when Abbanes saw him he said unto him: Is this thy master? And the apostle said: Yea, he is my Lord. And he said: I have bought thee of him. And the apostle held his peace.
          “And on the day following the apostle arose early, and having prayed and besought the Lord he said: I will go whither thou wilt, Lord Jesus: thy will be done. And he departed unto Abbanes the merchant, taking with him nothing at all save only his price. For the Lord had given it unto him, saying: Let thy price also be with thee, together with my grace, wheresoever thou goest.
          “And the apostle found Abbanes carrying his baggage on board the ship; so he also began to carry it aboard with him. And when they were embarked in the ship and were set down Abbanes questioned the apostle, saying: What craftsmanship knowest thou? And he said: In wood I can make ploughs and yokes and augers (ox-goads, Syr.), and boats and oars for boats and masts and pulleys; and in stone, pillars and temples and court-houses for kings. And Abbanes the merchant said to him: Yea, it is of such a workman that we have need. They began then to sail homeward; and they had a favourable wind, and sailed prosperously till they reached Andrapolis, a royal city.”9
        St. Thomas and Habban on their way to the Indian King Gundaphorus (Gandhappar = Gaspar), decided first to go to the court of the Parthian King Gondophernes (Melchior). When they disembarked at the port of Sandaruk (Anthropolis), situated in the neighbourhood of modern Karachi, the whole town was decked with flags and festoons, and echoing with drum beatings, music and fireworks. As Habban was a very good friend of Gondophernes, St. Thomas was also extended a royal welcome. When the king saw St. Thomas, he recognized divine grace in his face, and was interiorly inspired to treat him as the messenger of Jesus Christ, Whom he adored as an Infant at Bethlehem. So the king prostrated at the feet of St. Thomas entreating him to take the place of the chief guest and grace the function by imparting his blessing on the couple.10
        The marriage hall was filled with people of honour, together with various kinds of artists and musicians of the royal court. Among them there was a Hebrew girl brought from Galilee who was playing her flute for a Hebrew song. St. Thomas in an ecstasy composed on the spot a canticle in Hebrew and sang in accord with the flute music, for all to understand in their own tongues, describing the eternal marriage between Jesus and His Church. When the young couple was about to contract the marriage the Apostle prayed over them as follows:
        “May the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob be with both of you; May He plant in your hearts the seed of life everlasting; May He grant you everything that is good for you, that you may for ever fulfill His holy will; that you may, in the holy name of Jesus our Redeemer, be led by His grace, and be filled with the gifts of the Holy Ghost”. Then laying his hands on them he blessed and said: ‘May my Lord and my God be with you.” 11
        At this prayer and blessing of the Apostle, states Herbert Thurston, “Strange occurrences followed and Christ under the appearance of Thomas exhorted the bride and the bridegroom to remain virgins.”12 One of the strange occurrences is narrated by Alex C. Muthiah, referring to Dr. Medlycott, that after the marriage festivities were over, a wild black bear rushed into the crowd and severely attacked a man in the royal court, killed him and threw his limbs asunder. St. Thomas came to the spot, asked the people to keep calm, gathered all the scattered limbs of the man and prayed: “Lord, God of Israel, have mercy on this man and his family and give him back life so that these people may believe in your Son Jesus Christ.” After praying thus, St. Thomas blessed the limbs of the man with the sign of the Cross. Immediately the man came to life in the presence of King Gondophernes and a great multitude of people.13Ultimately St. Thomas converted the bride and the bridegroom.14

        With this story ends the first part of the “Act of Judas Thomas the Apostle.” The work is divided into nine parts, of which eight are called as “Acts,” and the last as “The Consummation of Judas Thomas.”
        Let us continue here the original text of the first Act of Thomas and read the story of the above Chapter

The First Act, when he went into India with Abbanes the merchant.  (Nos 4 to 16).

          “And they left the ship and entered into the city, and lo, there were noises of flutes and water-organs, and trumpets sounded about them; and the apostle inquired, saying: What is this festival that is in this city? And they that were there said to him: Thee also have the gods brought to make merry in this city. For the king hath an only daughter, and now he giveth her in marriage unto a husband: this rejoicing, therefore, and assembly of the wedding to-day is the festival which thou hast seen. And the king hath sent heralds to proclaim everywhere that all should come to the marriage, rich and poor, bond and free, strangers and citizens: and if any refuse and come not to the marriage he shall answer for it unto the king. And Abbanes hearing that, said to the apostle: Let us also go, lest we offend the king, especially seeing we are strangers. And he said: Let us go.
          “And after they had put up in the inn and rested a little space they went to the marriage; and the apostle seeing them all set down (reclining), laid himself, he also, in the midst, and all looked upon him, as upon a stranger and one come from a foreign land: but Abbanes the merchant, being his master, laid himself in another place.
          “And as they dined and drank, the apostle tasted nothing; so they that were about him said unto him: Wherefore art thou come here, neither eating nor drinking? but he answered them, saying: I am come here for somewhat greater than the food or the drink, and that I may fulfill the king’s will. For the heralds proclaim the king’s message, and whoso hearkeneth not to the heralds shall be subject to the king’s judgment.
          “So when they had dined and drunken, and garlands and unguents were brought to them, every man took of the unguent, and one anointed his face and another his beard and another other parts of his body; but the apostle anointed the top of his head and smeared a little upon his nostrils, and dropped it into his ears and touched his teeth with it, and carefully anointed the parts about his heart: and the wreath that was brought to him, woven of myrtle and other flowers, he took, and set it on his head, and took a branch of calamus and held it in his hand.
          “Now the flute-girl, holding her flute in her hand, went about to them all and played, but when she came to the place where the apostle was, she stood over him and played at his head for a long space: now this flute-girl was by race a Hebrew.
          “And as the apostle continued looking on the ground, one of the cup-bearers stretched forth his hand and gave him a buffet; and the apostle lifted up his eyes and looked upon him that smote him and said: My God will forgive thee in the life to come this iniquity, but in this world thou shalt show forth his wonders and even now shall I behold this hand that hath smitten me dragged by dogs. And having so said he began to sing and to say this song: (The canticle of Thomas on the Church as the bride).
          “The damsel is the daughter of light, in whom consisteth and dwelleth the proud brightness of kings, and the sight of her is delightful, she shineth with beauty and cheer. Her garments are like the flowers of spring, and from them a waft of fragrance is borne; and in the crown of her head the king is established which with his immortal food (ambrosia) nourisheth them that are founded upon him; and in her head is set truth, and with her feet she showeth forth joy. And her mouth is opened, and it becometh her well: thirty and two are they that sing praises to her. Her tongue is like the curtain of the door, which waveth to and fro for them that enter in: her neck is set in the fashion of steps which the first maker hath wrought, and her two hands signify and show, proclaiming the dance of the happy ages, and her fingers point out the gates of the city. Her chamber is bright with light and breatheth forth the odour of balsam and all spices, and giveth out a sweet smell of myrrh and Indian leaf, and within are myrtles strewn on the floor, and of all manner of odorous flowers, and the door-posts(?) are adorned with freedst.
          “And surrounding her are the groomsmen keeping watch over her, the number of whom is seven, whom she herself hath chosen. And her bridesmaids are seven, and they dance before her. And twelve in number are they that serve before her and are subject unto her, which have their aim and their look toward the bridegroom, that by the sight of him they may be enlightened; and forever shall they be with her in that eternal joy, and shall be at that marriage whereto the princes are gathered together and shall attend at that banquet whereof the eternal ones are accounted worthy, and shall put on royal raiment and be clad in bright robes; and in joy and exultation shall they both be and shall glorify the Father of all, whose proud light they have received, and are enlightened by the sight of their lord; whose immortal food they have received, that hath no failing (excrementum, Syr.), and have drunk of the wine that giveth then neither thirst nor desire. And they have glorified and praised with the living spirit, the Father of truth and the mother of wisdom.
          “And when he had sung and ended this song, all that were there present gazed upon him; and he kept silence, and they saw that his likeness was changed, but that which was spoken by him they understood not, for as much as he was a Hebrew and that which he spake was said in the Hebrew tongue. But the flute-girl alone heard all of it, for she was by race an Hebrew and she went away from him and played to the rest, but for the most part she gazed and looked upon him, for she loved him well, as a man of her own nation; moreover he was comely to look upon beyond all that were there. And when the flute-girl had played to them all and ended, she sat down over against him, gazing and looking earnestly upon him. But he looked upon no man at all, neither took heed of any but only kept his eyes looking toward the ground, waiting the time when he might depart thence.
          “But the cup-bearer that had buffeted him went down to the well to draw water; and there chanced to be a lion there, and it slew him and left him lying in that place, having torn his limbs in pieces, and forthwith dogs seized his members, and among them one black dog holding his right hand in his mouth bare it into the place of the banquet.
          “And all when they saw it were amazed and inquired which of them it was that was missing. And when it became manifest that it was the hand of the cup-bearer which had smitten the apostle, the flute-girl brake her flute and cast it away and went and sat down at the apostle’s feet, saying: This is either a god or an apostle of God, for I heard him say in the Hebrew tongue: ‘ I shall now see the hand that hath smitten me dragged by dogs’, which thing ye also have now beheld; for as he said, so hath it come about. And some believed her, and some not.
          “But when the king heard of it, he came and said to the apostle: Rise up and come with me, and pray for my daughter: for she is mine only-begotten, and to-day I give her in marriage. But the apostle was not willing to go with him, for the Lord was not yet revealed unto him in that place. But the king led him away against his will unto the bride-chamber that he might pray for them.
          “And the apostle stood, and began to pray and to speak thus: My Lord and my God, that travellest with thy servants, that guidest and correctest them that believe in thee, the refuge and rest of the oppressed, the hope of the poor and ransomer of captives, the physician of the souls that lie sick and Saviour of all creation, that givest life unto the world and strengthenest souls; thou knowest things to come, and by our means accomplishest them: thou Lord art he that revealeth hidden mysteries and maketh manifest words that are secret: thou Lord art the planter of the good tree, and of thine hands are all good works engendered: thou Lord art he that art in all things and passest through all, and art set in all thy works and manifested in the working of them all. Jesus Christ, Son of compassion and perfect Saviour, Christ, Son of the living God, the undaunted power that hast overthrown the enemy, and the voice that was heard of the rulers, and made all their powers to quake, the ambassador that wast sent from the height and camest down even unto hell, who didst open the doors and bring up thence them that for many ages were shut up in the treasury of darkness, and showedst them the way that leadeth up unto the height: l beseech thee, Lord Jesu, and offer unto thee supplication for these young persons, that thou wouldest do for them the things that shall help them and be expedient and profitable for them. And he laid his hands on them and said: The Lord shall be with you, and left them in that place and departed.
        “And the king desired the groomsmen to depart out of the bride-chamber; and when all were gone out and the doors were shut, the bridegroom lifted up the curtain of the bride-chamber to fetch the bride unto him. And he saw the Lord Jesus bearing the likeness of Judas Thomas and speaking with the bride; even of him that but now had blessed them and gone out from them, the apostle; and he saith unto him: Wentest thou not out in the sight of all? How then art thou found here? But the Lord said to him: I am not Judas which is also called Thomas but I am his brother. And the Lord sat down upon the bed and bade them also sit upon chairs, and began to say unto them:
        “Remember, my children, what my brother spake unto you and what he delivered before you: and know this, that if ye abstain from this foul intercourse, ye become holy temples, pure, being quit of impulses and pains, seen and unseen, and ye will acquire no cares of life or of children, whose end is destruction: and if indeed ye get many children, for their sakes ye become grasping and covetous, stripping orphans and overreaching widows, and by so doing subject yourselves to grievous punishments. For the more part of children become useless oppressed of devils, some openly and some invisibly, for they become either lunatic or half withered or blind or deaf or dumb or paralytic or foolish; and if they be sound, again they will be vain, doing useless or abominable acts, for they will be caught either in adultery or murder or theft or fornication, and by all these evil ye be afflicted.
        “But if ye be persuaded and keep your souls chaste before God, there will come unto you living children whom these blemishes touch not, and ye shall be without care, leading a tranquil life without grief or anxiety, looking to receive that incorruptible and true marriage, and ye shall be therein groomsmen entering into that bride-chamber which is full of immortality and light.
        “And when the young people heard these things, they believed the Lord and gave themselves up unto him, and abstained from foul desire and continued so, passing the night in that place. And the Lord departed from before them, saying thus: The grace of the Lord shall be with you.
        “And when the morning was come the king came to meet them and furnished a table and brought it in before the bridegroom and the bride. And he found them sitting over against each other and the face of the bride he found unveiled, and the bridegroom was right joyful.
        “And the mother came unto the bride and said: Why sittest thou so, child, and art not ashamed, but art as if thou hadst lived with thine husband a long season? And her father said: Because of thy great love toward thine husband dost thou not even veil thyself?
        “And the bride answered and said: Verily, father, I am in great love, and I pray my Lord that the love which I have perceived this night may abide with me, and I will ask for that husband of whom I have learned to-day: and therefore I will no more veil myself, because the mirror (veil) of shame is removed from me; and therefore am I no more ashamed or abashed, because the deed of shame and confusion is departed far from me; and that I am not confounded, it is because my astonishment hath not continued with me; and that I am in cheerfulness and joy, it is because the day of my joy hath not been troubled; and that I have set at nought this husband and this marriage that passeth away from before mine eyes, it is because I am joined in another marriage; and that I have had no intercourse with a husband that is temporal, whereof the end is with lasciviousness and bitterness of soul, it is because I am yoked unto a true husband.
        “And while the bride was saying yet more than this, the bridegroom answered and said: I give thee thanks, O Lord, that hast been proclaimed by the stranger, and found in us; who hast removed me far from corruption and sown life in me; who hast rid me of this disease that is hard to be healed and cured and abideth for ever, and hast implanted sober health in me; who hast shown me thyself and revealed unto me all my state wherein I am; who hast redeemed me from falling and led me to that which is better, and set me free from temporal things and made me worthy of those that are immortal and everlasting; that hast made thyself lowly even down to me and my littleness, that thou mayest present me unto thy greatness and unite me unto thyself; who hast not withheld thine own bowels from me that was ready to perish, but hast shown me how to seek myself and know who I was, and who and in what manner I now am, that I may again become that which I was: whom I knew not, but thyself didst seek me out: of whom I was not aware, but thyself hast taken me to thee: whom I have perceived, and now am not able to be unmindful of him: whose love burneth within me, and I cannot speak it as is fit, but that which I am able to say of it is little and scanty, and not fitly proportioned unto his glory: yet he blameth me not that presume to say unto him even that which I know not: for it is because of his love that I say even this much.
         “Now when the king heard these things from the bridegroom and the bride, he rent his clothes and said unto them that stood by him: Go forth quickly and go about the whole city, and take and bring me that man that is a sorcerer who by ill fortune came unto this city; for with mine own hands I brought him into this house, and I told him to pray over this mine ill-starred daughter; and who so findeth and bringeth him to me, I will give him whatsoever he asketh of me. They went, therefore and went about seeking him, and found him not; for he had set sail. They went also unto the inn where he had lodged and found there the flute-girl weeping and afflicted because he had not taken her with him. And when they told her the matter that had befallen with the young people she was exceeding glad at hearing it, and put away her grief and said: Now have I also found rest here. And she rose up and went unto them, and was with them a long time, until they had instructed the king also. And many of the brethren also gathered there until they heard the report of the Apostle, that he was come unto the cities of India and wasteaching there: and hey departed and joined themselves unto him.”15 
1. Cfr. George Mark Moraes “A History of Christianity in   India” Page 25.
2. Ibid. Page 25.
3. Ref. Alex Cruz Muthiah “Then Paandi Mandala Maanaveera Naadu” Page 132.
4. The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. XIV Page 658.
5. Fr.Motha Vaz, “The History of St. Thomas the Apostle of India” Ch.3, Page 4.
6. Fr. Motha Vaz ibid. Page 5.
7. George Moraes ibid. Page 24
8. Catholic Encyclopedia ibid. Page 658
9. M.R. James –Translation of “The Acts of Thomas” Nos 1 to 3,
10. Fr. Motha Vaz ibid. Page 5,6.
11. Ibid Page 6, 7.
12. Catholic Encyclopedia ibid. Page 658.
13. Alex C. Muthiah ibid. Page 136.
14. George Moraes Page 2; and Dr. V. Lawrence “History of The Catholic Church in Kanyakumari District”, ibid. Page 26.
15. M.R. James – translation of “The First Act of Thomas” Nos 4 to 16, 

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